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    how can individuals in communities prevent the global spread of hepatitis c?

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    Hepatitis C Basics

    A brief epidemiology and disease facts about hepatitis C and links to additional information on federal partners’ websites.

    Hepatitis C Basic Information

    The number of reported acute hepatitis C infections have more than quadrupled from 2010 to 2018, primarily due to increased injection of opioids and other drugs.

    Safe and effective treatments can cure hepatitis C in almost everyone who takes them. They are called Direct Acting Antivirals or DAAs.

    One-time universal hepatitis C screening is recommended for all adults aged 18 years and older and for all pregnant women during each pregnancy.

    Regular hepatitis C testing is recommended for people with ongoing risk factors.

    Topics on this page: What Is Hepatitis C? | How Many People Have Hepatitis C? | Who Is Most Affected? | Recent Increases in Hepatitis C Infections | HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection | How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted? | Hepatitis C Prevention | Testing | Effective Treatments Are Available for Hepatitis C | Help Raise Awareness About Hepatitis C | Learn More About Hepatitis C

    What Is Hepatitis C?

    Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is a blood-borne virus. Today, most people become infected with HCV by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, HCV infection is a short-term or acute illness but for more than half of people who become infected with HCV, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection is a serious disease that can result in long-term health problems, even death. The majority of infected people might not be aware of their infection because they do not have any symptoms. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The best way to prevent HCV infection is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs.

    How Many People Have Hepatitis C?

    During 2013-2016 it was estimated that about two and half million people were chronically infected with HCV in the United States. The actual number may be as low as 2.0 million or as high as 2.8 million.

    Globally, hepatitis C is a common blood-borne infection with an estimated 71 million people chronically infected according to the World Health Organization .

    Who Is Most Affected?

    New HCV infections are most common among people who inject drugs. In 2018, the number of newly reported chronic hepatitis C cases was highest among males and among people born from 1981 through 1996 and among people born from 1945 through 1965.

    Recent Increases in Hepatitis C Infections

    In 2018, an estimated 50,300 new HCV infections occurred in the United States. Between 2010 and 2018, the reported number of acute HCV infections quadrupled. High rates of new infections were predominantly among young adults aged 20-29 years and aged 30-39 years.

    HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection

    HCV infection is common among people with HIV who also inject drugs. Nearly 75% of people living with HIV who report a history of injection drug use are co-infected with HCV. All people who are diagnosed with HIV are recommended to be tested for HCV at least once. People living with HIV are at greater risk for complications and death from HCV infection. Fortunately, direct acting antivirals that are used to treat HCV work equally well in people with and without HIV infection. For more information about HIV and HCV coinfection, visit the HIV.gov’s pages about hepatitis C and HIV coinfection.

    How Is Hepatitis C Transmitted?

    Because HCV is primarily spread through contact with infected blood, people who inject drugs are at increased risk for HCV infection. HCV can also be transmitted from an infected mother to child at the time of birth, from unregulated tattoos or body piercings, and from sharing personal items that may be contaminated with infected blood, even in amounts too small to see. Much less often, HCV transmission occurs through sexual contact with an HCV-infected partner, especially among people with multiple sex partners and men who have sex with men. Currently in the United States, health care related transmission of HCV is rare, but people can become infected from accidental needle sticks and from breaches in infection control practices in health care facilities.

    Hepatitis C Prevention

    There is no vaccine to prevent hepatitis C. The best way to prevent HCV infection is to avoid contact with contaminated blood.

    Hepatitis C can spread when a person comes into contact with blood from an infected person. Injecting drugs is the most common way HCV is transmitted in the United States. For people who inject drugs, the best way to prevent HCV is to stop injecting. Community-based prevention programs, such as medication-assisted treatment and syringe services programs, can also reduce the transmission of HCV.

    Although the risk of sexual transmission of HCV is considered to be low, avoiding unprotected sexual exposure by using condoms has been shown to reduce the chance of sexually transmitted infections.

    Testing

    About 40% of people with chronic hepatitis C are unaware of their infection. The only way to find out if you have an HCV infection is to get tested through a simple blood test. Awareness of hepatitis C status is important because treatments are available that can cure HCV and reduce the chance of developing liver disease and liver cancer.

    The following are the CDC Recommendations for hepatitis C screening among adults in the United States:

    Universal screening:

    Source : www.hhs.gov

    Communicable Diseases Quiz Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Alessandro is ill with a fever, a cough, and a runny nose. Which precaution should he take to help his family avoid getting sick? A. Eat more vitamins. B. Drink plenty of water. C. Cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing. D. Get extra rest when he feels tired or achy, How can individuals in communities prevent the global spread of hepatitis C? A. By getting vaccinated. B. By washing their hands before eating. C. By avoiding contact with the blood of others. D. By avoiding contact with the saliva of others, Which challenges do countries face in limiting the spread of communicable diseases? A. Lack of available healthy food. B. Increase of worldwide travel. C. Decrease of available clean water. D. Increase in migration of infected animals. and more.

    Communicable Diseases Quiz

    4.8 29 Reviews

    Alessandro is ill with a fever, a cough, and a runny nose. Which precaution should he take to help his family avoid getting sick?

    A. Eat more vitamins.

    B. Drink plenty of water.

    C. Cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing.

    D. Get extra rest when he feels tired or achy

    Click card to see definition 👆

    C. Cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing.

    Click again to see term 👆

    How can individuals in communities prevent the global spread of hepatitis C?

    A. By getting vaccinated.

    B. By washing their hands before eating.

    C. By avoiding contact with the blood of others.

    D. By avoiding contact with the saliva of others

    Click card to see definition 👆

    C. By avoiding contact with the blood of others.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/14 Created by Chelsea_Staton6

    Terms in this set (14)

    Alessandro is ill with a fever, a cough, and a runny nose. Which precaution should he take to help his family avoid getting sick?

    A. Eat more vitamins.

    B. Drink plenty of water.

    C. Cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing.

    D. Get extra rest when he feels tired or achy

    C. Cover his mouth when coughing or sneezing.

    How can individuals in communities prevent the global spread of hepatitis C?

    A. By getting vaccinated.

    B. By washing their hands before eating.

    C. By avoiding contact with the blood of others.

    D. By avoiding contact with the saliva of others

    C. By avoiding contact with the blood of others.

    Which challenges do countries face in limiting the spread of communicable diseases?

    A. Lack of available healthy food.

    B. Increase of worldwide travel.

    C. Decrease of available clean water.

    D. Increase in migration of infected animals.

    B. Increase of worldwide travel.

    Which part of the immune system is a physical barrier?

    A. Skin B. Tears C. Mucus D. Stomach Acid A. Skin

    Which policy do public agencies and officials enforce to promote health and well-being?

    A. Teaching kids to wash their hands.

    B. Enforcing safe food handling practices at home.

    C. Overseeing the proper treatment of infectious diseases.

    D. Enforcing mandatory infectious disease training in hospitals.

    D. Enforcing mandatory infectious disease training in hospitals.

    Alice has felt ill for two weeks. She has had a runny nose every day and a fever of 100 degrees for two days. Her appetite has decreased slightly. She is tired and has not wanted to get out of bed.

    Which symptom does Alice have that indicates that she should seek medical care?

    A. Tiredness B. Runny nose

    C. Fever over 99 degrees

    D. Illness for two weeks

    D. Illness for two weeks

    Which is an uncontrollable risk factor that puts individuals at more risk for contracting a disease?

    A. Age B. Diet C. Physical fitness D. Personal hygiene A. Age

    Which describes the correct order of events in the spread of disease?

    A. pathogens → exposure → sickness

    B. sickness → pathogens → exposure

    C. exposure → sickness → transmission

    D. transmission → exposure → sickness

    A. pathogens → exposure → sickness

    Which is a function of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)?

    A. Controlling disease outbreaks.

    B. Reporting communicable diseases.

    C. Establishing vaccination schedules for children.

    D. Preventing the individual spread of diseases

    A. Controlling disease outbreaks.

    Which type of pathogen causes Lyme disease?

    A. Bacteria B. Fungus C. Parasite D. Virus A. Bacteria

    Why do schools strongly recommenced vaccinations?

    A. To be fair to all students.

    B. To protect school staff.

    C. To guarantee that students regularly visit a doctor.

    D. To protect students who cannot be vaccinated with herd immunity.

    D. To protect students who cannot be vaccinated with herd immunity.

    Dimitri received a flu vaccination earlier in the year. However, he has just been tested and has a confirmed case of the flu.

    Why did Dimitri most likely get the flu?

    A. Vaccinations are not always effective.

    B. Vaccinations are not effective if hygiene is poor.

    C. Vaccinations give individuals the flu with full symptoms.

    D. Vaccinations work only when provided at the onset of the disease.

    A. Vaccinations are not always effective.

    Which activity is most likely to transmit disease?

    A. Drinking bottled water.

    B. Eating improperly cooked food.

    C. Covering your mouth while coughing or sneezing.

    D. Cleaning animal waste and washing hands soon after

    B. Eating improperly cooked food.

    How can communities aid in disease prevention?

    A. By providing vaccination education.

    B. By reinforcing good hygiene habits at home.

    C. By keeping up-to-date with required immunizations.

    D. By practicing safe food-handling practices at home.

    A. By providing vaccination education.

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    Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spread through contact with infected blood. Info for the public and health professionals.

    Hepatitis C Information

    Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is spread through contact with blood from an infected person. Today, most people become infected with the hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment used to prepare and inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness, but for more than half of people who become infected with the hepatitis C virus, it becomes a long-term, chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis C can result in serious, even life-threatening health problems like cirrhosis and liver cancer. People with chronic hepatitis C can often have no symptoms and don’t feel sick. When symptoms appear, they often are a sign of advanced liver disease. There is no vaccine for hepatitis C. The best way to prevent hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, especially injecting drugs. Getting tested for hepatitis C is important, because treatments can cure most people with hepatitis C in 8 to 12 weeks.

    Questions and Answers For Health Professionals

    Overview and Statistics

    Transmission and Symptoms

    Testing and Diagnosis

    Management and Treatment

    Counseling Patients

    Hepatitis C and Health Care Personnel

    Questions and Answers For the Public

    Overview and Statistics

    Transmission / Exposure

    more»

    CDC Testing Recommendations

    Why should I test all adult patients for hepatitis C?

    Why should I test all pregnant patients for hepatitis C?

    CDC testing recommendations for hepatitis C virus infection

    Screening & Medical Management

    Clinical Guidelines

    Occupational Exposure

    Diagnostic Tools Laboratory Testing

    Online Serology Training – A-E

    HCV Testing Algorithm

    pdf icon

    HCV Interpretation Chart

    pdf icon

    Statistics & Surveillance

    Hepatitis C Tables and Figures

    Health care-Associated Outbreaks

    Surveillance Guidelines and Forms

    Professional Resources

    Know More Hepatitis Campaign for Health Care Providers

    Tools & Resources Major Guidelines

    Patient Education Resources

    CDC Materials

    Know More Hepatitis Campaign

    Federal Links

    Source : www.cdc.gov

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