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    hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

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    A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

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    alkalosis

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    A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________

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    bile

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    A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the baby's loss of gastric juice, his blood probably indicates ________.

    alkalosis

    A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________

    bile

    Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

    cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

    Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

    catabolism

    Chief cells ________.

    are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

    Chief cells _________.

    produce pepsinogen

    Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

    A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.

    B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.

    C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.

    D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

    Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

    Chyme is created in the ________.

    stomach

    Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

    lipids

    From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

    mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

    Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

    enteroendocrine cells

    Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.

    protein and peptide fragments

    Hepatocytes do not ________.

    produce digestive enzymes

    Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

    secretin

    How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?

    active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

    Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

    parietal cells

    If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

    serosa

    Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.

    round ligament

    In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

    initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

    Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

    the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

    Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.

    cystic duct

    Paneth cells ________.

    secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

    Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

    hydrochloric acid

    Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

    chief cells of the stomach

    Peristaltic waves are ________.

    waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

    Select the correct statement about absorption.

    If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

    Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

    Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

    Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.

    Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum.

    Answer: D

    Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.

    Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

    Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

    There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

    Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

    lipase

    Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

    tongue

    The ___ phase of gastric secretions occurs before food enters the stomach.

    cephalic

    The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

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    1) The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

    A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen

    B) in the walls of the tract organs

    C) in the pons and medulla

    D) only in the esophagus because this is the only part of the tract that needs to change to accommodate food passage

    B

    2) The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

    A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract

    B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

    C) distribute hormones

    D) return glucose to the general circulation when blood sugar is low

    B

    3) The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

    A) digestion B) absorption C) ingestion D) secretion A

    4) When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.

    A) absorption B) secretion

    C) chemical digestion

    D) mechanical digestion

    C

    5) The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

    A) mesenteries B) lamina propria C) serosal lining D) mucosal lining A

    6) From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

    A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

    B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

    C) submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

    D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

    D

    7) Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

    A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

    B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

    C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells

    D) rennin D

    8) What part of the tooth bears the force of chewing?

    A) crown B) enamel C) pulp D) cementum B

    9) The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

    A) muscularis mucosae

    B) serosa C) adventitia D) lamina propria D

    10) Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

    A) gastrin B) secretin

    C) cholecystokinin CCK

    D) gastric inhibitor peptide

    C

    11) Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.

    A) Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion.

    B) Bile functions to emulsify fats.

    C) Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs.

    D) Bile contains enzymes for digestion.

    D

    12) The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

    A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

    B) the vast array of digestive enzymes

    C) Brunner's glands D) the rugae A

    13) Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

    A) There are 27 primary teeth, and the molars are permanent.

    B) There are 24 primary teeth, and no new primary teeth appear after 13 months.

    C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.

    D) There are 32 primary teeth, and most children lose these teeth due to decay because they are never very strong.

    C

    14) Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

    A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.

    B) There are 27 permanent teeth, and the first molars are usually the last to emerge.

    C) The number of permanent teeth is always equal to the number of primary teeth.

    D) The number of upper permanent teeth is not equal to the number of lower permanent teeth.

    A

    15) Which of the following is not true of saliva?

    A) cleanses the mouth

    B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

    C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus

    D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

    B

    16) The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

    A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells

    B) parietal cells and glial cells

    C) serous cells and mucous cells

    D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

    C

    17) The solutes contained in saliva include ________.

    A) only salts and minerals

    B) only proteases and amylase

    C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals

    D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

    D

    18) In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

    A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

    B) is the first site where absorption takes place

    C) is the only place where fats are completely digested

    D) is the first site where chemical digestion of starch takes place

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    Chapter 23 Digestive System Flashcards

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    Chapter 23 Digestive System

    118cards Biology

    Human Anatomy & Physiology

    The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called:

    mesenteries

    Functions of the large intestine

    1. Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are reclaimed

    2. Major function is propulsion of feces toward the anus

    Which of these is not a component of saliva?

    nitric oxide

    components of saliva

    water (97 - 99.5% with 99% average) electrolyes - Na, K, Mg, Cl proteins - mucin, lysozyme, salivary amylase lipase

    Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?

    inferior vena cava

    Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

    secretin

    Select the correct statement about absorption.

    If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may be generated.

    Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

    Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex.

    Paneth cells ________.

    secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

    Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.

    Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth

    What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?

    intrinsic factor

    Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

    cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction

    Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

    is longer than the small intestine

    The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.

    submucosa

    A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

    bile

    Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

    trypsin

    Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

    parietal cells

    Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

    fungiform and circumvallate

    Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?

    synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

    The function of the goblet cells is to ________.

    produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

    Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.

    cystic duct

    ________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.

    Carbohydrates

    Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.

    round ligament

    Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?

    lipids

    The lamina propria is composed of ________.

    loose connective tissue (basement membrane)

    The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.

    ileum

    If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

    serosa

    The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.

    Liver

    Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________

    catabolism

    Chief cells ________.

    are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

    Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

    B12

    Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?

    enterogastric

    The phases are Cephalic, gastric and intestinal

    Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

    hydrochloric acid

    The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called:

    Hydrolysis

    The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the:

    Hepatopancreatic ampulla

    Pepsinogen, an inactive digestive enzyme, is secreted by the

    chief cells of the stomach

    Peristaltic waves are

    Waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another.

    there are three phases of gastric secretion. the cephalic phase occurs:

    before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or though.

    Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?

    enteroendocrine cells

    Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach

    parietal cells

    Chyme is created in the ________

    stomach

    in addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach

    initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

    The solutes contained in the saliva include:

    electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

    The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

    plicae circulares and intestinal villi

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