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    glucose is the starting point for cellular respiration. which type of biomolecule does glucose represent?

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    Cellular Energy

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    Biology

    9th

    9th Cellular Energy

    Deleted User 73 plays

    15 Qs

    Show Answers See Preview 1. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Why are pigments important to the process of photosynthesis?

    answer choices Absorb Light Reflect Light 2. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Why is photosynthesis important?

    answer choices Creates Food Breaks down food 3. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Why is cellular respiration important?

    answer choices Makes DNA Makes ATP 4. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What is the importance of ATP in a cell?

    answer choices

    Gives the cell energy

    a.       gives off light energy

    5. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Energy flows through an ecosystem from—

    answer choices

    a. the sun to autotrophs to heterotrophs

    the sun to heterotrophs to autotrophs

    autotrophs to heterotrophs and back to autotrophs

    6. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of the following is not an autotroph?

    answer choices Plants Algae Humans 7. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which compound serves as the major energy compound for a cell?

    answer choices DNA ATP Chlorophyll 8. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    During photosynthesis, the light reactions take place in the _____, while the Calvin cycle takes   place in the _____.

    answer choices grana, thylakoid thylakoid, stroma 9. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Cellular respiration involves an energy conversion.  Which of the following represents the   energy conversion that occurs during cellular respiration?

    answer choices ATP to glucose ATP to light energy

    a.       glucose to ATP

    10. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    What do both glycolysis and fermentation have in common?

    answer choices

    a.       They require oxygen

    a.       They produce lactic acid and ethyl alcohol

    a.       They produce ATP

    11. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Glucose is the starting point for cellular respiration.  Which type of biomolecule is glucose?

    answer choices carbohydrate lipid 12. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Each chemical reaction that occurs in cellular respiration relies on an enzyme.  What role does   an enzyme play in cellular respiration?

    answer choices

    a.       an enzyme reverses a chemical reaction

    a.       an enzyme converts light energy into chemical energy

    an enzyme speeds up a chemical reaction

    13. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of the following statements is TRUE?

    answer choices

    Aerobic respiration requires oxygen and produces less energy per glucose than anaerobic respiration.

    Anaerobic respiration does not require oxygen and produces less energy per glucose than aerobic respiration.

    Only prokaryotic cells can perform aerobic respiration.

    14. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of these statements best explains the process of energy conversion that takes place inthe mitochondria?

    answer choices

    Energy is required for carbon dioxide molecules to form six-carbon sugar molecules.

    Water molecules and radiant energy are necessary for anaerobic respiration to takeplace.

    Oxygen molecules release energy in the form of heat during combustion reactions.

    The energy in the bonds of glucose molecules is transferred to the phosphate bonds inATP.

    15. Multiple-choice 30 seconds Q.

    Which of the following correctly describes how a diagram of cellular respiration would differfrom a diagram of photosynthesis?

    answer choices

    The cellular-respiration diagram would show electromagnetic waves as the finalproduct.

    The cellular-respiration diagram would show glucose as the main source of energy.

    The cellular-respiration diagram would show energy stored in large protein molecules.

    The cellular-respiration diagram would show water as the main source of chemicalenergy.

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    2.3 Biological Molecules – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition

    2.3 BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Describe the ways in which carbon is critical to life

    Explain the impact of slight changes in amino acids on organisms

    Describe the four major types of biological molecules

    Understand the functions of the four major types of molecules

    Watch a video about proteins and protein enzymes.

    The large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules are called biological macromolecules. There are four major classes of biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), and each is an important component of the cell and performs a wide array of functions. Combined, these molecules make up the majority of a cell’s mass. Biological macromolecules are organic, meaning that they contain carbon. In addition, they may contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and additional minor elements.

    CARBON

    It is often said that life is “carbon-based.” This means that carbon atoms, bonded to other carbon atoms or other elements, form the fundamental components of many, if not most, of the molecules found uniquely in living things. Other elements play important roles in biological molecules, but carbon certainly qualifies as the “foundation” element for molecules in living things. It is the bonding properties of carbon atoms that are responsible for its important role.

    CARBON BONDING

    Carbon contains four electrons in its outer shell. Therefore, it can form four covalent bonds with other atoms or molecules. The simplest organic carbon molecule is methane (CH4), in which four hydrogen atoms bind to a carbon atom.

    Figure 2.12 Carbon can form four covalent bonds to create an organic molecule. The simplest carbon molecule is methane (CH4), depicted here.

    However, structures that are more complex are made using carbon. Any of the hydrogen atoms can be replaced with another carbon atom covalently bonded to the first carbon atom. In this way, long and branching chains of carbon compounds can be made (Figure 2.13 a). The carbon atoms may bond with atoms of other elements, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus (Figure 2.13 b). The molecules may also form rings, which themselves can link with other rings (Figure 2.13 c). This diversity of molecular forms accounts for the diversity of functions of the biological macromolecules and is based to a large degree on the ability of carbon to form multiple bonds with itself and other atoms.

    Figure 2.13 These examples show three molecules (found in living organisms) that contain carbon atoms bonded in various ways to other carbon atoms and the atoms of other elements. (a) This molecule of stearic acid has a long chain of carbon atoms. (b) Glycine, a component of proteins, contains carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms. (c) Glucose, a sugar, has a ring of carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

    CARBOHYDRATES

    Carbohydrates are macromolecules with which most consumers are somewhat familiar. To lose weight, some individuals adhere to “low-carb” diets. Athletes, in contrast, often “carb-load” before important competitions to ensure that they have sufficient energy to compete at a high level. Carbohydrates are, in fact, an essential part of our diet; grains, fruits, and vegetables are all natural sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates provide energy to the body, particularly through glucose, a simple sugar. Carbohydrates also have other important functions in humans, animals, and plants.

    Carbohydrates can be represented by the formula (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. In other words, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 1:2:1 in carbohydrate molecules. Carbohydrates are classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.

    Monosaccharides (mono- = “one”; sacchar- = “sweet”) are simple sugars, the most common of which is glucose. In monosaccharides, the number of carbon atoms usually ranges from three to six. Most monosaccharide names end with the suffix -ose. Depending on the number of carbon atoms in the sugar, they may be known as trioses (three carbon atoms), pentoses (five carbon atoms), and hexoses (six carbon atoms).

    Monosaccharides may exist as a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules; in aqueous solutions, they are usually found in the ring form.

    The chemical formula for glucose is C6H12O6. In most living species, glucose is an important source of energy. During cellular respiration, energy is released from glucose, and that energy is used to help make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Plants synthesize glucose using carbon dioxide and water by the process of photosynthesis, and the glucose, in turn, is used for the energy requirements of the plant. The excess synthesized glucose is often stored as starch that is broken down by other organisms that feed on plants.

    Galactose (part of lactose, or milk sugar) and fructose (found in fruit) are other common monosaccharides. Although glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same chemical formula (C6H12O6), they differ structurally and chemically (and are known as isomers) because of differing arrangements of atoms in the carbon chain.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    4.10 Cellular Respiration – Human Biology

    4.10 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

    Created by: CK-12/Adapted by Christine Miller

    Figure 4.10.1 Ready to make s’mores!

    BRING ON THE S’MORES!

    This inviting camp fire can be used for both heat and light. Heat and light are two forms of  that are released when a fuel like wood is burned. The of living things also get energy by “burning.” They “burn” in a process called.

    WHAT IS CELLULAR RESPIRATION?

     is the process by which living cells break down molecules and release . The process is similar to burning, although it doesn’t produce light or intense heat as a campfire does. This is because cellular respiration releases the energy in glucose slowly and in many small steps. It uses the energy released to form molecules of , the energy-carrying molecules that cells use to power biochemical processes. In this way, cellular respiration is an example of energy coupling: glucose is broken down in an exothermic reaction, and then the energy from this reaction powers the endothermic reaction of the formation of ATP.  Cellular respiration involves many chemical reactions, but they can all be summed up with this chemical equation:C6H12O6  6O2 → 6CO2  6H2O Chemical Energy (in ATP)

    In words, the equation shows that glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) react to form carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O), releasing energy in the process. Because oxygen is required for cellular respiration, it is an  process.

    Cellular respiration occurs in the of all living things, both and . All of them burn to form . The reactions of can be grouped into three stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle (also called the citric acid cycle), and electron transport. Figure 4.10.2 gives an overview of these three stages, which are also described in detail below.

    Figure 4.10.2 Cellular respiration takes place in the stages shown here. The process begins with a molecule of glucose, which has six carbon atoms. What happens to each of these atoms of carbon?

    CELLULAR RESPIRATION STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS

    The first stage of cellular respiration is , which happens in the of the .

    SPLITTING GLUCOSE

    The word glycolysis literally means “glucose splitting,” which is exactly what happens in this stage.  split a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate (also known as pyruvic acid). This occurs in several steps, as summarized in the following diagram.

    Figure 4.10.3 Glycolysis is a complex ten-step reaction that ultimately converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. This releases energy, which is transferred to ATP. How many ATP molecules are made during this stage of cellular respiration?

    RESULTS OF GLYCOLYSIS

    Energy is needed at the start of to split the glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules which go on to stage II of cellular respiration. The energy needed to split glucose is provided by two molecules of ATP; this is called the energy investment phase. As glycolysis proceeds, energy is released, and the energy is used to make four molecules of ATP; this is the energy harvesting phase. As a result, there is a net gain of two ATP molecules during glycolysis. During this stage, high-energy electrons are also transferred to molecules of NAD  to produce two molecules of NADH, another energy-carrying molecule. NADH is used in stage III of cellular respiration to make more ATP.

    TRANSITION REACTION

    Before pyruvate can enter the next stage of cellular respiration it needs to be modified slightly.  The transition reaction is a very short reaction which converts the two molecules of pyruvate to two molecules of acetyl CoA, carbon dioxide, and two high energy electron pairs convert NAD to NADH.  The carbon dioxide is released, the acetyl CoA moves to the mitochondria to enter the Kreb’s Cycle (stage II), and the NADH carries the high energy electrons to the Electron Transport System (stage III).

    Figure 4.10.14: During the Transition Reaction, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA and carbon dioxide.

    STRUCTURE OF THE MITOCHONDRION

    Figure 4.10.5 Labelled mitochondrion structure.

    Before you read about the last two stages of cellular respiration, you need to know more about the , where these two stages take place. A diagram of a mitochondrion is shown in Figure 4.10.5.

    The structure of a mitochondrion is defined by an inner and outer membrane. This structure plays an important role in aerobic respiration.

    As you can see from the figure, a mitochondrion has an inner and outer membrane. The space between the inner and outer membrane is called the . The space enclosed by the inner membrane is called the . The second stage of cellular respiration (the Krebs cycle) takes place in the matrix. The third stage (electron transport) happens on the inner membrane.

    Source : humanbiology.pressbooks.tru.ca

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