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    Cloud Quantum Computing & Top Cloud QC Vendors in 2022

    Explore what cloud QC is, the leading companies, their approach to cloud quantum computing, why it's important, its pricing, & how these systems work.

    QUANTUM COMPUTING

    Cloud Quantum Computing & Top Cloud QC Vendors in 2022

    UPDATED ON FEBRUARY 8, 2022PUBLISHED ON JUNE 18, 20204 MINUTE READ

    Written by Cem Dilmegani

    Quantum computing is an emerging discipline that has relatively limited commercialization. Some tech giants started to present methods about how organizations can integrate this technology into their business in the future. Taking advantage of quantum computing on the cloud seems to be the most likely option for most businesses.

    Cloud-based quantum computing provides direct access to emulators, simulators and quantum processors. Vendors also provide development platforms and documentation for quantum computing languages and tools.

    What is cloud-based quantum computing?

    Cloud-based quantum computing allows companies and researches to test their quantum algorithms. First of all, quantum algorithms are developed using classical computers and then these algorithms are tested of these in real quantum computers through the cloud.

    The deployment of quantum circuits and the support systems necessary for their operation is a costly and difficult process. Within the scope of the research, companies that already use these systems enable cloud-based quantum computing via the platforms they build.

    Quantum computing provides an advantage over conventional computing in nonlinear problems with multiple solution sets. For example, if a multi-parameter nonlinear problem that will take years to solve with classical computers is the bottleneck of the research, it would be wise to develop the necessary algorithms and test them through the cloud. Feel free to visit our in-depth guide on potential application areas of quantum computing.

    How does it work?

    Rigetti is one of the leading startups in cloud-based quantum computing and their Forest product works as shown below:

    Source: Medium/Rigetti

    Developers can interface the quantum machine image (QMI) using their classical computers. QMIs are virtualized programming and execution environments designed to develop and run quantum software applications by using such tools as pyQuil.

    The developed code is executed on quantum virtual machines (QVM). QVMs are implementation of the quantum machines in order to test the code and generate a waveform to run on quantum processors.

    Quantum machine image sends and receives waveforms from the quantum processing unit (QPU) which is basically a quantum chip that contains interconnected qubits. These qubits can be configured by using waveforms.

    QPU sends the necessary information from the solution set and QMI processes the information and sends it back to the classical computer.

    Why is it important now?

    Although quantum computing is an immature field, it can make a difference in many areas with improvements in implementation and error correction. This new technology will reach a beneficial point with the participation of more people and their collaboration. Thanks to emulators and simulators, it is possible to test quantum coding and software.

    Cloud-based quantum computing offers a direct interface to quantum circuits and quantum chips enabling final testing of quantum algorithms.

    Cloud-based quantum computing has provided a way that enables people to make improvements in quantum computing. Businesses and academia can practice by using QC on the cloud and do not have to wait for quantum computing technology to be mature and widespread.

    According to MarketsandMarkets research, the quantum computing market is estimated to reach $280M by the end of 2024 which was about $90M  by 2019.

    How is the pricing for cloud QC?

    IBM Q Experience announced that they provide free access for research and educational use. However, the exact price of product use for enterprises is not yet available.

    Currently, most companies are working to broaden the appeal of quantum computing in enterprises and are not focused on monetizing the product immediately. Even AWS Braket did not yet publish pricing guidelines.

    What are the top vendors of quantum computing in the cloud?

    Tech giants like Microsoft, IBM, Google and Amazon, the defense industry, specialized startups and government organizations are investing in quantum computing. While technology giants are developing their own quantum systems, they can partner with experienced startups. If you want to learn more about quantum computing ecosystem, you can visit our research.

    Here is some of the cloud-based quantum computing providers:

    Microsoft Azure Quantum

    Microsoft provides tools as QDK and quantum script languages as Q# for quantum computing development. Microsoft is partnering with 1Qbit, Honeywell, IONQ, QCI in the development of quantum computing systems. The capabilities of Azure Cloud enables access for quantum computers developed by its’ partners.

    Microsoft also developed their own quantum system called Station Q. Their approach is called topological qubit method for stable quantum bits in order to serve for mass production of quantum computers.

    IBM Q Experience

    IBM started a quantum network called IBM Q network in 2016. Since then, IBM became one of the forerunner in the quantum computing ecosystem. IBM Q can be accessed on the cloud through Qiskit(an open-source quantum software development kit).

    Source : research.aimultiple.com

    Quantum Computing

    IBM is here to help you be the first to explore, define, and benefit from the rapidly approaching age of quantum computing. Learn about IBM's quantum computers and software here.

    IBM Quantum breaks 100-qubit barrier

    The 127-qubit Eagle processor takes us into uncharted computational territory. This device embodies several important advances in our approach to hardware design, and marks a crucial stage in our climb toward quantum advantage.

    IBM announces CLOPS, a new performance standard for benchmarking quantum systems | Learn more

    Overview

    Overview We’re building the future of quantum

    IBM’s full quantum stack allows our partners to fully explore quantum solutions at unmatched fidelity and scale.

    Learn the benefits of joining the IBM Quantum Network – our community of 170+ Fortune 500 companies, academic institutions, national labs, and startups. These organizations gain access to our stack, empowering them to tackle the hardest problems across fields like finance, materials, logistics, and chemistry in new and better ways.

    Jay Gambetta delivers the 2021 IBM Quantum State of the Union

    Jay Gambetta delivers the 2021 IBM Quantum State of the Union Announcing major IBM Quantum breakthroughs

    IBM Quantum’s VP reveals important breakthroughs in effort to reach quantum advantage.

    Watch the 2021 IBM Quantum Summit

    State of the Union

    Learn about Quantum Serverless, a

    breakthrough in quantum-classical integration

    Solutions

    Solutions IBM Quantum solutions

    IBM’s full-stack approach delivers the best of IBM’s quantum computing systems together with the most complete suite of quantum software tools and cloud services.

    IBM Quantum Services

    IBM Quantum Services offer access to the latest, world-leading quantum systems, simulators, runtimes and programming tools, all through the IBM Cloud.

    Systems & Simulators

    Our 20+ quantum systems make up the most powerful fleet of quantum computers in the world, with every level of machine based on Quantum System One technology.

    Tools & Software

    Visually build quantum circuits in IBM Quantum Composer to run on real quantum systems. Or prototype applications on the cloud with IBM Quantum Lab. It's all powered by Qiskit, IBM's open-source SDK.

    Find the best solution for you

    For business

    Partner with IBM Quantum to find opportunities

    Learn how organizations are working with our systems now to develop tomorrow’s quantum solutions.

    Discover quantum for business

    For developers

    Code quantum algorithms in Python

    Integrate quantum into your workflows with high-level libraries.

    Discover quantum for developers

    For researchers

    Advance quantum computing research

    Work with the best experimentalists and theorists to explore new ways of cutting through complexity with quantum computing.

    Discover quantum for researchers

    For educators

    Educate the next generation

    The field of quantum computing is just emerging, and we want students, educators, and society to grow and benefit from it.

    Discover quantum for educators

    Resources

    Driving quantum performance

    Learn about CLOPS: our demanding new standard for benchmarking quantum computers.

    Read the blog

    Get certified today

    IBM offers the first professional quantum developer certification program.

    Get certified

    IBM-HBCU Quantum Center is growing

    Read about the new center members, 10 historically Black colleges and universities.

    Read the blog

    Get started with IBM Quantum

    Get started with IBM Quantum Start building with IBM Quantum tools

    Get started with a drag and drop interface to build circuits, view Qiskit code, and develop algorithms.

    Start building today

    Read about quantum around the world

    Learn about our IBM Quantum Network partners who are exploring how quantum can advance industry applications.

    View all case studies

    What is quantum computing?

    Explore a simpler way to understand quantum computing.

    Learn about quantum computing

    Connect with us

    Find out how quantum computing can impact your business, research or educator programs. Connect with an IBM expert today.

    Contact us

    Source : www.ibm.com

    Use a Quantum Cloud for (almost) Free

    Geography inclusion: Quantum computers are not cheap at the moment (we talk about 15 millions USD investments) without mentioning the knowledge to set it up. The good news is that anyone in the globe…

    Use a Quantum Cloud for (almost) Free

    Use a Quantum Cloud for (almost) Free Practical Quantum Computing AWS Braket 101

    Credits: StockSnap CC0 license

    This story is about geographical and social inclusion!Geography inclusion: Quantum computers are not cheap at the moment (we talk about 15 millions USD investments) without mentioning the knowledge to set it up. The good news is that anyone in the globe can start using a quantum computer through cloud platforms. So, it doesn’t matter if you live in Norway, US, Peru, or Botswana. As long as you have internet access you can run programs on quantum circuit. Unfortunately, they are not totally free but they are at accessible prices (e.g. 0.3 USD per run).Social inclusion: In this article I will guide through one of these platforms. This is not an over-comprehensive guide and I am not comparing this platform to the others. I want you to show how easy is to run programs on quantum circuit. Do you need a PhD in quantum physics? Obviously it is better, but if you are just a highschool student you can start from here, and if you like it, you can continue in the future. Also, girls this is not a nerdy thing, you might like it :-) So let’s start with Amazon Braket.

    1. Initial steps

    Amazon Braket is one of the platforms easily accessible online. It is a quantum computing platform that gives access to multiple quantum devices from different companies (D-Wave, IonQ, Rigetti), one way to use it is through the Braket Python SDK. I will guide you through the basics. To be honest, I prefer the IBM QPU (which is virtually totally free) and Qiskit, but I think exactly for this reason I write in the future more in dept tutorials. Anyway, here lets first focus on Braket.

    First, open a browser and go to the url https://aws.amazon.com/braket/

    Then, you have to select a North American Cloud and a data repository. Amazon Braket stores results from your algorithms in any Amazon S3 bucket.

    We can select the quantum processor (D-wave, IonQ, Rigetti) or a simulator. There are a couple of options about the D-Wave and the Rigetti. It is also possible that those quantum machines are temporarily not available. Let’s see briefly those connected devices before you choose. This dashboard is actually more an overview of the possibilities, the actual choice occurs via coding.

    Amazon Braket initial screenshot

    D-Wave — Advantage system

    The Advantage quantum processor unit (QPU) is based on a physical lattice of qubits and couplers known as Pegasus. The Pegasus architecture comprises a repeated structure where each qubit is coupled to other oppositely aligned qubits. A basic unit cell contains twenty-four such qubits.

    A particular aspect of the D-wave machine is that it is a quantum annealer, particularly suitable for optimizing solutions. Annealing is a metaheuristic to find global minimum/maximum.

    A schematic illustration of 8 qubit loops (gold). The blue dots are the locations of the 16 coupling elements that allow the qubits to exchange information. Mathematically, these elements couple together variables in a problem that you wish the computer to solve. Credits: D-wave

    IonQ

    IonQ is a universal gate quantum computer with trapped ions. More specifically, there are11 qubits made out of Ytterbium with a trap-chain defined by a laser. Even though there are only 11 qubits the topology is really interesting because the device is fully connected, making the qubit interaction really efficient. Gates are given by a two-photon Raman transition using a pair of counter-propagating beams from a mode-locked pulsed laser.

    Amazon Braket plot of the IonQ topology

    There’s also information about the calibration fidelity (a measurement of how close two quantum states):

    {

    “braketSchemaHeader”: {

    “name”: “braket.device_schema.ionq.ionq_provider_properties”,

    “version”: “1” }, “fidelity”: { “1Q”: { “mean”: 0.99717 }, “2Q”: { “mean”: 0.9696 }, “spam”: { “mean”: 0.9961 } }, “timing”: { “T1”: 10000, “T2”: 0.2, “1Q”: 0.000011, “2Q”: 0.00021,

    “readout”: 0.000175,

    “reset”: 0.000035 } }

    This means that we have 99.7% chance that for one qubit applied a gate to read out the same state as expected.

    Rigetti

    The Rigetti is another computer with superconducting qubits. It has 30 qubits (more than IonQ) but the topology is quite different:

    Amazon Braket plot of the Rigetti Aspen 8

    Not all the qubits are connected to each other, which requires particular attention when programming a c-naught gate on qubits. For example, we will need swap gates which will increase the chance of mismeasurement (quantum circuits are still error prone). As for IonQ, Braket also provides calibration information, including coherence times for every qubit as well.

    Source : towardsdatascience.com

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