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    Biology Review Ch. 10 & 11 Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?, All the individuals of a species that live in a particular area are called a, The remnant of an organ that had a function in an early ancestor is known as a(n) and more.

    Biology Review Ch. 10 & 11

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    What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?

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    adaptation

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    All the individuals of a species that live in a particular area are called a

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    population

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    Terms in this set (14)

    What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?

    adaptation

    All the individuals of a species that live in a particular area are called a

    population

    The remnant of an organ that had a function in an early ancestor is known as a(n)

    vestigial structure

    What observations did Charles Darwin make about finches in the Galápagos Islands?

    Different species of finches lived on different islands.

    Which scientist developed a classification system for organisms?

    Carolus Linnaeus

    Which theory states that floods and earthquakes have occurred often in Earth's history?

    catastrophism

    The hind leg bones shown in the whale in Figure 10.2 are examples of

    vestigal structures

    Charles Darwin found fossils that looked like ancient versions of living species. From this evidence Darwin suggested that Earth was

    much more than 6000 years old

    What is the process in which humans breed organisms for certain traits?

    artificial selection

    Individuals that are well adapted to their environment will survive and produce

    more offspring

    Natural selection results in change over time by acting on traits that are

    heritable

    What is the study of the distribution of organisms around the world?

    biogeography

    Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in living organisms

    were useful to their ancestors

    Which theory ties the fields of biology and geology together?

    evolution

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    Evidence of Evolution – Concepts of Biology

    EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Explain sources of evidence for evolution

    Define homologous and vestigial structures

    The evidence for evolution is compelling and extensive. Looking at every level of organization in living systems, biologists see the signature of past and present evolution. Darwin dedicated a large portion of his book, On the Origin of Species, identifying patterns in nature that were consistent with evolution and since Darwin our understanding has become clearer and broader.

    FOSSILS

    Fossils provide solid evidence that organisms from the past are not the same as those found today; fossils show a progression of evolution. Scientists determine the age of fossils and categorize them all over the world to determine when the organisms lived relative to each other. The resulting fossil record tells the story of the past, and shows the evolution of form over millions of years ([Figure 1]). For example, highly detailed fossil records have been recovered for sequences of species in the evolution of whales and modern horses. The fossil record of horses in North America is especially rich and many contain transition fossils: those showing intermediate anatomy between earlier and later forms. The fossil record extends back to a dog-like ancestor some 55 million years ago that gave rise to the first horse-like species 55 to 42 million years ago in the genus Eohippus. The series of fossils tracks the change in anatomy resulting from a gradual drying trend that changed the landscape from a forested one to a prairie. Successive fossils show the evolution of teeth shapes and foot and leg anatomy to a grazing habit, with adaptations for escaping predators, for example in species of Mesohippus found from 40 to 30 million years ago. Later species showed gains in size, such as those of Hipparion, which existed from about 23 to 2 million years ago. The fossil record shows several adaptive radiations in the horse lineage, which is now much reduced to only one genus, Equus, with several species.

    Figure 1: This illustration shows an artist’s renderings of these species derived from fossils of the evolutionary history of the horse and its ancestors. The species depicted are only four from a very diverse lineage that contains many branches, dead ends, and adaptive radiations. One of the trends, depicted here is the evolutionary tracking of a drying climate and increase in prairie versus forest habitat reflected in forms that are more adapted to grazing and predator escape through running. Przewalski’s horse is one of a few living species of horse.

    ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY

    Another type of evidence for evolution is the presence of structures in organisms that share the same basic form. For example, the bones in the appendages of a human, dog, bird, and whale all share the same overall construction ([Figure 2]). That similarity results from their origin in the appendages of a common ancestor. Over time, evolution led to changes in the shapes and sizes of these bones in different species, but they have maintained the same overall layout, evidence of descent from a common ancestor. Scientists call these synonymous parts homologous structures. Some structures exist in organisms that have no apparent function at all, and appear to be residual parts from a past ancestor. For example, some snakes have pelvic bones despite having no legs because they descended from reptiles that did have legs. These unused structures without function are called vestigial structures. Other examples of vestigial structures are wings on flightless birds (which may have other functions), leaves on some cacti, traces of pelvic bones in whales, and the sightless eyes of cave animals.

    Figure 2: The similar construction of these appendages indicates that these organisms share a common ancestor.

    Click through the activities at this interactive site to guess which bone structures are homologous and which are analogous, and to see examples of all kinds of evolutionary adaptations that illustrate these concepts.

    Another evidence of evolution is the convergence of form in organisms that share similar environments. For example, species of unrelated animals, such as the arctic fox and ptarmigan (a bird), living in the arctic region have temporary white coverings during winter to blend with the snow and ice ([Figure 3]). The similarity occurs not because of common ancestry, indeed one covering is of fur and the other of feathers, but because of similar selection pressures—the benefits of not being seen by predators.

    Figure 3: The white winter coat of (a) the arctic fox and (b) the ptarmigan’s plumage are adaptations to their environments. (credit a: modification of work by Keith Morehouse)

    Embryology, the study of the development of the anatomy of an organism to its adult form also provides evidence of relatedness between now widely divergent groups of organisms. Structures that are absent in some groups often appear in their embryonic forms and disappear by the time the adult or juvenile form is reached. For example, all vertebrate embryos, including humans, exhibit gill slits at some point in their early development. These disappear in the adults of terrestrial groups, but are maintained in adult forms of aquatic groups such as fish and some amphibians. Great ape embryos, including humans, have a tail structure during their development that is lost by the time of birth. The reason embryos of unrelated species are often similar is that mutational changes that affect the organism during embryonic development can cause amplified differences in the adult, even while the embryonic similarities are preserved.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in...

    Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in living organisms :

    Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in living organisms GENERAL

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