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    First Aid for Chemical Exposures : OSH Answers

    How long should the skin or eyes be flushed with water in the event of a chemical exposure? What should a workplace do if they choose to have additional first aid procedures available? Under what circumstances should oxygen be administered as a first aid measure?

    First Aid for Chemical Exposures

    First Aid for Chemical Exposures How long should the skin or eyes be flushed with water in the event of a chemical exposure?

    Most standard sources recommend that water rinsing/flushing following skin or eye contact with a chemical should continue for 15 or 20 minutes. However, all chemicals do not cause the same degree of effects (some are non-irritants while others can cause severe corrosive injury). At the present time, there is insufficient scientific evidence available to properly address the question of how long flushing should continue. However, it makes sense to tailor the duration of flushing to the known effects of the chemical or product, as follows:

    5-minutes for non-irritants or mild irritants

    15-20 minutes for moderate to severe irritants and chemicals that cause acute toxicity if absorbed through the skin

    30 minutes for most corrosives

    60 minutes for strong alkalis (e.g., sodium, potassium or calcium hydroxide)

    It is very important that water flushing start immediately following skin or eye contact with a chemical. It is better if complete water flushing occurs on-site. However, moving the exposed person to an emergency care facility earlier may be necessary depending on their condition (e.g., compromised airways, breathing, or circulation) and/or the availability of a suitable water supply. If it is necessary to transport the person before completing flushing on-site, flushing should continue during emergency transport, taking proper precautions to protect emergency services personnel.

    Note that the manufacturer/supplier may also specify a cleansing agent (e.g., non-abrasive soap) if appropriate, or may recommend an alternative agent in exceptional cases if water is clearly inappropriate.

    OSH Answers has more information on emergency eyewash and shower equipment.

    What should a workplace do if they choose to have additional first aid procedures available?

    If an employer opts to offer additional first aid measures (including over-the-counter medications, administration of oxygen, use of epinephrine auto-injectors, naloxone, etc.), it is suggested that they first seek legal counsel so that they are aware of any liability issues, and to check with your local jurisdiction responsible for health and safety. For example, in some jurisdictions, distribution of over-the-counter medications is not recommended (although an individual who can purchase using a vending machine may be permissible). In other jurisdictions, distribution of over-the-counter medications may be permitted under specific circumstances (including the appropriate training of first aid personnel).

    Under what circumstances should oxygen be administered as a first aid measure?

    In the past, emergency oxygen was commonly recommended as a first aid procedure for almost any chemical inhalation exposure. Later, concern was expressed that the administration of oxygen itself may be harmful if carried out improperly or in the wrong circumstances. In particular, there was concern that administering oxygen to people with chronic obstructive lung diseases, such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema, could cause the person to stop breathing. However, recent reviews have concluded that, during an emergency situation, the lack of oxygen is the most critical issue and there should be little concern over worsening the condition of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    The presence of oxygen cylinders in the workplace can introduce additional hazards. For example, since oxygen supports combustion, the presence of oxygen cylinders could contribute to a fire hazard in the workplace. Also, since oxygen is stored under high pressure, the cylinder can behave like a missile if the valve breaks or the tank is punctured. Therefore, the risks and benefits of storing and maintaining an emergency oxygen supply in the workplace must be weighed.

    There are some situations where the benefits of emergency oxygen outweigh the potential risks associated with maintaining and storing oxygen cylinders in the workplace. Emergency oxygen may be beneficial following exposure to chemicals that interfere with the body getting the necessary levels of oxygen to sustain life and health, including chemicals that:

    Displace oxygen in the air, reducing the amount of oxygen available for breathing (e.g., helium, argon, methane, carbon dioxide or nitrogen).

    Reduce the ability of blood to transport oxygen (e.g., carbon monoxide poisoning, or methemoglobinemia – presence of an oxidized form of hemoglobin in the blood that does not transport oxygen).

    Compromise the use of oxygen by body tissue, as with cyanide or hydrogen sulfide toxicity.

    Interfere with the ability of oxygen to cross through the lungs to the blood stream, as occurs with pulmonary edema, a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Ammonia, phosgene and chlorine are examples of chemicals that can cause pulmonary edema.

    Provoke a severe asthma attack (e.g., toluene diisocyanate).

    Additional training of first aid providers is required since basic first aid training courses do not include oxygen administration. First aid providers must be familiar with the laws that govern the use of oxygen administration in their workplace.

    When should vomiting be induced following ingestion of a chemical?

    Vomiting should NOT be induced following ingestion of a chemical in an occupational setting unless advised by a Poison Centre or doctor. Some of the arguments against inducing vomiting are:

    Source : www.ccohs.ca

    First aid must be administered when a hazardous chemical spills on a

    First aid must be administered when a hazardous chemical spills on a from HIST 101 at College of Southern Nevada

    First aid must be administered when a hazardous

    College of Southern Nevada

    HIST 101 Test Prep SIMON7398 402 83% (6)

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    First aid must be administered when a hazardous chemical spills on a foodhandler's arms and face. Fromwhich document, required to be on file in the foodservice operation, can the first aid information befound?Answera.The Food Code.b.Underwriters Laboratories' Top Ten List.c.Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).d.OSHA's Consumer Guide to Toxic Materials.If you are using a three-compartment sink for cleaning and sanitizing, the second sink is used forAnswera.Sanitizingb.Scrapingc.Washingd.RinsingWhat should be done before cleaning and sanitizing items in a three-compartment sink?Answer1.Immerse items in a chemical-sanitizing solution.

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    2.Soak all items in a bleach solution.3.Clean and sanitize all work surfaces and each sink.4.Soak all items in a detergent solution.To ensure that the sanitizing solution for a food prep surface will work correctly, a foodhandler should:Answera.Rinse it from the surface and then apply it a second time.b.Test the surfact to confirm that no more pathogens are present.c.Use a test kit to check its concentration.d.Heat it to the temperature recommended by the manufacturer.What does a chemical sanitizing solution's effectiveness depend upon?Answera.Number of surfaces to be sanitized.b.Color and odor of the solution.c.pH, water hardness, and temperature of the solution.d.Type of test strips utilized when testing the solution.A pan is being washed in a three-compartment sink. Some food bits are stuck to the pan. To clean thepan correctly,Answera.scrape the pan, wash it in a detergent solution, immerse in a chlorine bleach solution, rinse, andair-dry.b.soak the pan in warm water, wash it in a detergent solution, rinse, and air-dry.

    c.scrape the pan, wash it in a detertgent-sanitizer solution, rinse, and air-dry.d.scrape the pan, wash it in a detergent solution, rinse, sanitize, and air-dry.What type of dishwasher would have a final rinse temperature of 120 F.?Answera.A chemical-sanitizing machine.b.A high-temperature machine.c.A combination high-temperature, chemical-sanitizing machine.d.A stationary single rack high-temperature machine.What is sanitizing;Answera.Reducing pathogens to safe levelsb.Reducing the pH of a surfacec.Reducing dirt from a surfaced.Reducing the hardness of waterThe effectiveness of a chemical sanitizer can be limited by:Answer1.Using water that is below 120 F,2.Air drying items after immersing them in the sanitizer.3.Improper rinsing that leaves a detergent residue.

    4.Using metal tongs to remove items from the sanitizing solution.Foodservice chemicals may be:Answera.Used at triple strength.b.Transferred temporarily to unlabeled spray bottles.c.Stored next to food items.d.Transferred to smaller, correctly labeled containers.

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    Term Fall Professor CharlesDeitrich Tags

    Correct Answer, Foodborne Illness

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    fab 101 ch 12 Flashcards & Practice Test

    Start studying fab 101 ch 12. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    fab 101 ch 12

    The water temperature in the wash sink of a three-compartment sink must be at least:

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    110 F

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    A foodservice manager must buy new cleaning brushes with long-lasting bristles that do not absorb moisture. Which bristle would be the best choice?

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    nylon

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    1/15 Created by michellenikole

    Terms in this set (15)

    The water temperature in the wash sink of a three-compartment sink must be at least:

    110 F

    A foodservice manager must buy new cleaning brushes with long-lasting bristles that do not absorb moisture. Which bristle would be the best choice?

    nylon

    An employee wants to make a sanitizer solution to spray onto food-contact surfaces. What must be done to ensure that it has been made correctly?

    Test the solution with a sanitizer test kit.

    First aid must be administered when a hazardous chemical spills on a foodhandler's arms and face. From which document, required to be on file in the foodservice operation, can the first aid information be found?

    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).

    How can chemical contamination be prevented?

    Follow the manufacturer's directions.

    A food handler was assigned to clean a slicer that was too difficult to move. The slicer was unplugged. Then the removable parts were taken off the slicer and cleaned and sanitized in a three-compartment sink. Food bits on the slicer were removed. After the machine was wiped down with detergent and water, it was sanitized and allowed to air-dry. Then the food handler put the machine back together. What mistake did the food handler make?

    Failed to rinse the machine after wiping it down with detergent and water.

    Sinks must be used for the correct intended purpose to prevent:

    Cross-contamination.

    Which type of cleaner would best remove mineral deposits from steam tables?

    Delimer.

    A quaternary ammonium sanitizer is tested and measures 750 PPM. This poses a risk of which type of contamination?

    Chemical.

    The third compartment of a three-compartment sink should contain:

    Sanitizing solution.

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