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    eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have some parts in common. which of the following pairs of parts would you find in both types of cells?

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    3.2 Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells – Concepts of Biology – 1st Canadian Edition

    3.2 COMPARING PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Name examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms

    Compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells

    Describe the relative sizes of different kinds of cells

    Cells fall into one of two broad categories: prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The predominantly single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea are classified as prokaryotes (pro– = before; –karyon– = nucleus). Animal cells, plant cells, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (eu– = true).

    COMPONENTS OF PROKARYOTIC CELLS

    All cells share four common components: 1) a plasma membrane, an outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment; 2) cytoplasm, consisting of a jelly-like region within the cell in which other cellular components are found; 3) DNA, the genetic material of the cell; and 4) ribosomes, particles that synthesize proteins. However, prokaryotes differ from eukaryotic cells in several ways.

    A prokaryotic cell is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) organism that lacks a nucleus, or any other membrane-bound organelle. We will shortly come to see that this is significantly different in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic DNA is found in the central part of the cell: a darkened region called the nucleoid.

    Figure 3.6 This figure shows the generalized structure of a prokaryotic cell.

    Unlike Archaea and eukaryotes, bacteria have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, comprised of sugars and amino acids, and many have a polysaccharide capsule (Figure 3.6). The cell wall acts as an extra layer of protection, helps the cell maintain its shape, and prevents dehydration. The capsule enables the cell to attach to surfaces in its environment. Some prokaryotes have flagella, pili, or fimbriae. Flagella are used for locomotion, while most pili are used to exchange genetic material during a type of reproduction called conjugation.

    EUKARYOTIC CELLS

    In nature, the relationship between form and function is apparent at all levels, including the level of the cell, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells. The principle “form follows function” is found in many contexts. For example, birds and fish have streamlined bodies that allow them to move quickly through the medium in which they live, be it air or water. It means that, in general, one can deduce the function of a structure by looking at its form, because the two are matched.

    A eukaryotic cell is a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound compartments or sacs, called organelles, which have specialized functions. The word eukaryotic means “true kernel” or “true nucleus,” alluding to the presence of the membrane-bound nucleus in these cells. The word “organelle” means “little organ,” and, as already mentioned, organelles have specialized cellular functions, just as the organs of your body have specialized functions.

    CELL SIZE

    At 0.1–5.0 µm in diameter, prokaryotic cells are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells, which have diameters ranging from 10–100 µm (Figure 3.7). The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules that enter them to quickly spread to other parts of the cell. Similarly, any wastes produced within a prokaryotic cell can quickly move out. However, larger eukaryotic cells have evolved different structural adaptations to enhance cellular transport. Indeed, the large size of these cells would not be possible without these adaptations. In general, cell size is limited because volume increases much more quickly than does cell surface area. As a cell becomes larger, it becomes more and more difficult for the cell to acquire sufficient materials to support the processes inside the cell, because the relative size of the surface area across which materials must be transported declines.

    Figure 3.7 This figure shows the relative sizes of different kinds of cells and cellular components. An adult human is shown for comparison.

    SECTION SUMMARY

    Prokaryotes are predominantly single-celled organisms of the domains Bacteria and Archaea. All prokaryotes have plasma membranes, cytoplasm, ribosomes, a cell wall, DNA, and lack membrane-bound organelles. Many also have polysaccharide capsules. Prokaryotic cells range in diameter from 0.1–5.0 µm.

    Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but a eukaryotic cell is typically larger than a prokaryotic cell, has a true nucleus (meaning its DNA is surrounded by a membrane), and has other membrane-bound organelles that allow for compartmentalization of functions. Eukaryotic cells tend to be 10 to 100 times the size of prokaryotic cells.

    Exercises

    Glossary

    eukaryotic cell: a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and several other membrane-bound compartments or sacsorganelle: a membrane-bound compartment or sac within a cellprokaryotic cell: a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelle

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells ( Read )

    Differentiates between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Discusses the major differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    [Figure1]

    Are bacteria cells like our cells?

    Yes and no. Bacteria cells are similar to our cells in some ways. Like our cells, bacteria cells have DNA and a plasma membrane. But bacteria are unique in other ways. They are called prokaryotic cells because of these differences.

    Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

    There are two basic types of cells, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. The main difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells is that eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. The nucleus is where cells store their DNA, which is the genetic material. The nucleus is surrounded by a membrane. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Instead, their DNA floats around inside the cell. Organisms with prokaryotic cells are called prokaryotes. All prokaryotes are single-celled (unicellular) organisms. Bacteria and Archaea are the only prokaryotes. Organisms with eukaryotic cells are called eukaryotes. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. All multicellular organisms are eukaryotes. Eukaryotes may also be single-celled.

    Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have structures in common. All cells have a plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA. The plasma membrane, or cell membrane, is the phospholipid layer that surrounds the cell and protects it from the outside environment. Ribosomes are the non-membrane bound organelles where proteins are made, a process called protein synthesis. The cytoplasm is all the contents of the cell inside the cell membrane, not including the nucleus.

    Eukaryotic Cells

    Eukaryotic cells usually have multiple chromosomes, composed of DNA and protein. Some eukaryotic species have just a few chromosomes, others have close to 100 or more. These chromosomes are protected within the nucleus. In addition to a nucleus, eukaryotic cells include other membrane-bound structures called organelles. Organelles allow eukaryotic cells to be more specialized than prokaryotic cells. Pictured below are the organelles of eukaryotic cells (Figure below), including the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus. These will be discussed in additional concepts.

    [Figure2]

    Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and various other special compartments surrounded by membranes, called organelles. The nucleus is where the DNA (chromatin) is stored. Organelles give eukaryotic cells more functions than prokaryotic cells.

    Prokaryotic Cells

    Prokaryotic cells (Figure below) are usually smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells. They do not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. In prokaryotic cells, the DNA, or genetic material, forms a single large circle that coils up on itself. The DNA is located in the main part of the cell.

    [Figure3]

    Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. Instead, their genetic material is located in the main part of the cell.

    Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic CellsNucleus No YesDNA Single circular piece of DNA Multiple chromosomesMembrane-Bound Organelles No YesExamples Bacteria Plants, animals, fungi

    Summary

    All cells have a plasma membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and DNA.

    Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus and membrane-bound structures.

    Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound structures called organelles.

    Explore More

    Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.

    Compare Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QON4z9vo7Ag (1:55)

    What does "naked" DNA mean? What kinds of organisms have "naked" DNA?

    Where do you find membrane bound organelles? Are plasmids membrane bound organelles?

    What is the function of mitochondria in prokaryotes?

    Review

    What do all cells have in common?

    What are organelles?

    Compare the location of the genetic material of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells.

    What are ribosomes?

    What are the only prokaryotes?

    Which prokaryotes are multicellular?

    Found a content error?

    Tell us

    Notes/Highlights

    Color Highlighted Text Notes

    Vocabulary

    Language: English ▼ Term Definition

    cytoplasm material inside the cell membrane, including the watery cytosol and other cell structures except the nucleus if one is present.

    Source : www.ck12.org

    Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have some parts in co

    Find step-by-step Physical science solutions and your answer to the following textbook question: Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have some parts in common. Which of the following pairs of parts would you find in both types of cells? F. cytoplasm and nucleus G. cell membrane and cytoplasm H. DNA and membrane-bound organelles I. cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles.

    Question

    Eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells have some parts in common. Which of the following pairs of parts would you find in both types of cells? F. cytoplasm and nucleus G. cell membrane and cytoplasm H. DNA and membrane-bound organelles I. cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles

    Explanation

    Verified

    Prokaryotes do not have any membrane-bound organelles and its DNA is in the cytoplasm.

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    prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells generally have which of the following features in common?

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    which feature is common to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

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    which of the following is found in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells?

    Source : quizlet.com

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