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    State of the Union

    Including President Joseph R. Biden, Jr.'s address, there have been a total of 98 in-person Annual Messages/State of the Union Addresses. Since President Woodrow Wilson’s 1913 address, there have been a total of 86 in-person addresses. In 1945, President Franklin Roosevelt's address was read to a Joint Session of the House and Senate. Since the President did not deliver the address, it does not count as an in-person address. Origins and Authorization The formal basis for the State of the Union Address is from the U.S. Constitution:The President “shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” Article II, Section 3, Clause 1. The constitutionally mandated presidential message has gone through a few name changes:It was formally known as the Annual Message from 1790 to 1946.It began to be informally called the "state of the Union" message/address from 1942 to 1946.Since 1947 it has officially been known as the State of the Union Address. Earlier Annual Messages of the President included agency budget requests and general reports on the health of the economy. During the 20th century, Congress required more-specialized reports on these two aspects, separate from the Annual Message.Budget Message, required by the National Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (42 Stat. 20) to be delivered to Congress no more than two weeks after Congress convenes in January.Economic Report, required by the Employment Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 23), with a flexible delivery date. Over time, as the message content changed, the focus of the State of the Union also changed:In the 19th century, the annual message was both a lengthy administrative report on the various departments of the executive branch and a budget and economic message.After 1913, when Woodrow Wilson revived the practice of presenting the message to Congress in person, it became a platform for the President to rally support for his agenda.Technological changes—radio, television, and the Internet—further developed the State of the Union into a forum for the President to speak directly to the American people.Technological ChangeFirst radio broadcast of Message: President Calvin Coolidge, 1923. First television broadcast of Message: President Harry Truman, 1947. First televised evening delivery of Message: President Lyndon Johnson, 1965. First live webcast on Internet: President George W. Bush, 2002. First high definition television broadcast of Message, President George W. Bush, 2004.Record HoldersThe longest: President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter 33,667 words in 1981 (written). President William J. (Bill) Clinton 9,190 words in 1995 (spoken).1The shortest: President George Washington, 1790, 1,089 words.2Average length: 19th century was about 10,000 words; late 20th century, about 5,000 words.Most Messages/Addresses given: President Franklin Roosevelt, 12 (10 were personal appearances before Congress).Fewest Messages/Addresses given: President Zachary Taylor, 1; President William Henry Harrison, 0; President James A. Garfield, 0.

    State of the Union Address

    State of the Union Address Blog Post

    January 31, 2013

    Putting One Over on Teddy

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    Image courtesy of Library of Congress

    On December 13, 1913, Woodrow Wilson gave the first in-person Annual Message since the 18th century.

    Including President Joseph R. Biden, Jr.'s address, there have been a total of 98 in-person Annual Messages/State of the Union Addresses. Since President Woodrow Wilson’s 1913 address, there have been a total of 86 in-person addresses.

    In 1945, President Franklin Roosevelt's address was read to a Joint Session of the House and Senate. Since the President did not deliver the address, it does not count as an in-person address.

    Origins and Authorization

    The formal basis for the State of the Union Address is from the U.S. Constitution:

    The President “shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” Article II, Section 3, Clause 1.

    The constitutionally mandated presidential message has gone through a few name changes:

    It was formally known as the Annual Message from 1790 to 1946.

    It began to be informally called the "state of the Union" message/address from 1942 to 1946.

    Since 1947 it has officially been known as the State of the Union Address.

    Earlier Annual Messages of the President included agency budget requests and general reports on the health of the economy. During the 20th century, Congress required more-specialized reports on these two aspects, separate from the Annual Message.

    Budget Message, required by the National Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 (42 Stat. 20) to be delivered to Congress no more than two weeks after Congress convenes in January.

    Economic Report, required by the Employment Act of 1946 (60 Stat. 23), with a flexible delivery date.

    Over time, as the message content changed, the focus of the State of the Union also changed:

    In the 19th century, the annual message was both a lengthy administrative report on the various departments of the executive branch and a budget and economic message.

    After 1913, when Woodrow Wilson revived the practice of presenting the message to Congress in person, it became a platform for the President to rally support for his agenda.

    Technological changes—radio, television, and the Internet—further developed the State of the Union into a forum for the President to speak directly to the American people.

    Technological Change

    First radio broadcast of Message: President Calvin Coolidge, 1923.

    First television broadcast of Message: President Harry Truman, 1947.

    First televised evening delivery of Message: President Lyndon Johnson, 1965.

    First live webcast on Internet: President George W. Bush, 2002.

    First high definition television broadcast of Message, President George W. Bush, 2004.

    Record Holders

    The longest: President James Earl (Jimmy) Carter 33,667 words in 1981 (written). President William J. (Bill) Clinton 9,190 words in 1995 (spoken).1

    The shortest: President George Washington, 1790, 1,089 words.2

    Average length: 19th century was about 10,000 words; late 20th century, about 5,000 words.

    Most Messages/Addresses given: President Franklin Roosevelt, 12 (10 were personal appearances before Congress).

    Fewest Messages/Addresses given: President Zachary Taylor, 1; President William Henry Harrison, 0; President James A. Garfield, 0.

    Footnotes

    1The American Presidency Project at UC Santa Barbara, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/sou.php (January 16, 2014).

    2Ibid.

    Source : history.house.gov

    State of the Union

    State of the Union

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    For the most recent State of the Union address, see 2022 State of the Union Address. For other uses, see State of the Union (disambiguation).

    The State of the Union Address (sometimes abbreviated to SOTU) is an annual message delivered by the president of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress near the beginning of each calendar year on the current condition of the nation.[1][2] The State of the Union Address generally includes reports on the nation's budget, economy, news, agenda, achievements and the president's priorities and legislative proposals.[3]

    The address fulfills the requirement in Article II, Section 3, Clause 1 of the U.S. Constitution for the president to periodically "give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient."[1] During most of the country's first century, the president primarily submitted only a written report to Congress. After 1913, Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U.S. president, began the regular practice of delivering the address to Congress in person as a way to rally support for the president's agenda.[1] With the advent of radio and television, the address is now broadcast live in all United States time zones on many networks.[4]

    Starting 1981, Ronald Reagan, the 40th U.S. president, began the practice of newly inaugurated presidents delivering an address to Congress in the first year of their term, but not designating that speech an official "State of the Union".[5]

    Contents

    1 Formality 2 History

    3 Delivery of the speech

    3.1 Invitations

    3.2 Protocol of entry into the House chamber

    3.3 Designated survivor and other logistics

    3.4 Content of the speech

    4 Opposition response

    5 Significance 6 Local versions 7 Historic speeches 8 TV ratings 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

    Formality[edit]

    The practice arises from a duty of the president under the State of the Union Clause of the U.S. Constitution:[6]

    He shall from time to time give to Congress information of the State of the Union and recommend to their Consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.

    — Article II, Section 3 of the U.S. Constitution

    Though the language of the clause is not specific, since the 1930s, the president has made this report annually in late January or early February. Between 1934 and 2022 the date has been as early as January 3,[5] and as late as March 1.[7]

    While not required to deliver a speech, every president since Woodrow Wilson, with the notable exception of Herbert Hoover,[8] has made at least one State of the Union report as a speech delivered before a joint session of Congress. Before then, most presidents delivered the State of the Union as a written report.[5]

    Since Franklin Roosevelt, the State of the Union is given typically each January before a joint session of the United States Congress and is held in the House of Representatives chamber of the United States Capitol. Newly inaugurated presidents generally deliver an address to Congress in February of the first year of their term, but this speech is not officially considered to be a "State of the Union".[5]

    What began as a communication between president and Congress has become in effect a communication between the president and the people of the United States. Since the advent of radio, and then television, the speech has been broadcast live in all United States time zones on most networks, preempting scheduled programming. Since at least the 1960s, in order to reach the largest audience, the speech has typically been given at 9 p.m. (Eastern Time, UTC-5).[9]

    History[edit]

    George Washington's handwritten notes for the first State of the Union Address, January 8, 1790. Full 7 pages.

    George Washington delivered the first regular annual message before a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1790, in New York City, then the provisional U.S. capital. In 1801, Thomas Jefferson discontinued the practice of delivering the address in person, regarding it as too monarchical (similar to the Speech from the Throne). Instead, the address was written and then sent to Congress to be read by a clerk until 1913 when Woodrow Wilson re-established the practice despite some initial controversy, and an in-person address to Congress has been delivered nearly every year since. However, there have been exceptions to this rule, with some messages being given solely in writing, and others given both in writing and orally (either in a speech to Congress or through broadcast media).[10] The last president to give a written message without a spoken address was Jimmy Carter in 1981, days before his term ended after his defeat by Ronald Reagan.[10]

    For many years, the speech was referred to as "the President's Annual Message to Congress".[11] The actual term "State of the Union" first emerged in 1934 when Franklin D. Roosevelt used the phrase, becoming its generally accepted name since 1947.[11]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Article II: The Presidency Flashcards

    Start studying Article II: The Presidency. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

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    Which statement best explains why the Constitution limits the power of the executive branch?

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the vice president from overthrowing the president.

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    Terms in this set (10)

    The president signing a trade agreement with China is an example of

    approving an amendment.

    ratifying an amendment.

    granting a pardon. making a treaty. making a treaty.

    Which statement best explains why the Constitution limits the power of the executive branch?

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the vice president from overthrowing the president.

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the president from becoming too powerful.

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the president from interfering in the work of other branches.

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the vice president from interfering in the work of the president.

    The Constitution limits the executive branch to keep the president from becoming too powerful.

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    The State of the Union address requires the president to update the on what is going on in the country.

    congress

    Under Article II of the Constitution, the president needs to be at least

    twenty-five years old.

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    fifty-five years old.

    thirty-five years old.

    Which best explains how the Senate affects the powers of the president?

    The Senate must approve many presidential actions.

    The Senate often has more powers than the president.

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    The Senate often rejects many presidential actions.

    The Senate must approve many presidential actions.

    During the State of the Union address, the president is required to report to

    the Supreme Court. the vice president.

    governors in all fifty states.

    members of Congress.

    members of Congress.

    A general limitation on the power of the president is

    the possibility of impeachment.

    the ability to grant pardons.

    the ability to make treaties.

    the threat of treason.

    the possibility of impeachment.

    A limitation on the president's power to appoint ambassadors is that

    the Senate must approve them.

    the House must approve them.

    the House and Senate must approve them.

    the Supreme Court must approve them.

    the Senate must approve them.

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