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    during the 1925 scopes trial, the defense’s main argument was that scopes was being discriminated against. scopes had done nothing illegal. evolution was the latest scientific fad. evolution was scientific fact.

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    get during the 1925 scopes trial, the defense’s main argument was that scopes was being discriminated against. scopes had done nothing illegal. evolution was the latest scientific fad. evolution was scientific fact. from EN Bilgi.

    Scopes Davası

    Scopes Davası

    Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi

    Scopes Davası

    Duruşmanın yedinci gününde, aşırı sıcak yüzünden duruşmalar açık havada yapıldı. William Jennings Bryan (solda oturan) Clarence Darrow tarafından sorgulanıyor.

    Mahkeme Tennessee Ceza Mahkemesi

    Davalı John T. Scopes

    İddia Lise öğretmeni olan John T. Scopes'un, Tennessee eyaleti tarafından finanse edilen herhangi bir okulda insan evrimini öğretmeyi yasa dışı kılan Butler Yasası'nı ihlal ettiği iddiası

    Yargıç John T. Raulston

    Karar tarihi 21 Temmuz 1925

    , bilinen ismiyle Scopes Davası, Temmuz 1925'te bir lise öğretmeni olan John T. Scopes'un, Tennessee eyaleti tarafından finanse edilen herhangi bir okulda insan evrimini öğretmeyi yasa dışı kılan Butler Yasası'nı ihlal etmekle suçlandığı bir Amerikan hukuk davasıydı.[1] Duruşma, Dayton, Tennessee isimli küçük kasabada düzenlendi. Scopes tarafından gerçekten evrim eğitimi verilip verilmediği kesin değildi, ama davada bir sanık olabilmesi için kasıtlı olarak kendisi suçladı.[2][3]

    Scopes suçlu bulundu ve $100 para cezasına çarptırıldı (2019 enflasyonuyla $1500'a eşdeğerdir), ancak karar teknik bir nitelik nedeniyle bozuldu. Ulusal muhabirler, her iki tarafı da temsil etmeyi kabul eden ünlü avukatları haber yapmak için Dayton'a akın ederken duruşma, bölgenin ulusal ölçekte tanınmasını sağladı. Üç kez başkan adayı olmuş William Jennings Bryan, savcılık için savaşırken ünlü avukat Clarence Darrow, Scopes yerine konuştu. Dava, evrimin dinle tutarsız olmadığını söyleyen Modernistleri[4] Kitâb-ı Mukaddes'te geçen Tanrı Sözünün tüm insan bilgisine göre öncelikli olduğunu söyleyen Köktencilere karşı koyan Fundamentalist-Modernist tartışmayı kamuoyuna duyurdu. Bu nedenle dava, hem teolojik bir yarışma hem de modern bilimin okullarda öğretilip öğretilmeyeceği konusunda bir deneme olarak görüldü.

    İçindekiler

    1 Arka plan 2 Dayton, Tennessee 3 Bildiriler 3.1 Bryan'ın Sınavı 3.1.1 Adem ve Havva

    3.1.2 Duruşmanın sonu

    4 Kaynakça 5 Dış bağlantılar

    Arka plan[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

    Tennessee'li bir çiftçi, Dünya Hristiyan Temelleri Derneği başkanı ve Eyalet Temsilcisi olan John W. Butler, devlet yasama meclislerinde evrim karşıtı yasaları geçirmek için bir lobi oluşturdu. Butler Yasası 25 Mart 1925'te Tennessee'de kabul edildiğinde başarılı oldu.[5] Butler daha sonra, "Gazetelerde, öğrencilerin okuldan eve geldikleri zaman anne ve babalarına Kitâb-ı Mukaddes'in saçma olduğunu söylediklerini okudum" dedi. Tennessee valisi Austin Peay, kırsal yasa koyucular arasında destek elde etmek için yasayı imzaladı, ancak yasanın Tennessee okullarında ne uygulanacağına ne de eğitime müdahale edeceğine inanıyordu.[6] William Jennings Bryan, Peay'e tasarı için şevkle teşekkür etti: "Eyaletin Hristiyan ebeveynleri, çocuklarını ispatlanmamış bir hipotezin zehirli etkisinden kurtardığınız için size bir minnet borcu var."[7]

    Amerikan Sivil Özgürlükler Birliği buna cevaben, Tennessee'li bir lise doğa bilimleri öğretmeni olan John Scopes'un Yasayı ihlal ettiği için yargılanmayı kabul ettiği bir test davasını finanse etti. Normal biyoloji öğretmeninin yerine geçen kapsamlar, 5 Mayıs 1925'te George William Hunter'in ders kitabındaki (1914) evrim teorisini, ırkı anlatan bir bölümden evrimi öğretmekle suçlandı. İki taraf, ülkedeki en büyük yasal isimleri, savcılık için William Jennings Bryan'ı ve savunma için Clarence Darrow'u getirdi ve duruşma, Birleşik Devletler'deki radyo yayınlarından takip edilebildi.[8]

    Dayton, Tennessee[değiştir | kaynağı değiştir]

    Amerikan Sivil Özgürlükler Birliği (ACLU), Butler Yasasına aykırı olarak evrim teorisini öğretmekle suçlanan herkesi savunmayı teklif etti. 5 Nisan 1925'te, Cumberland Coal & Iron Company'nin yerel müdürü George Rappleyea, okulların bölge idaresinin müdürü Walter White ve 'daki yerel avukat Sue K. Hicks ile bir toplantı düzenleyerek onları böyle bir denemenin tartışmalı olduğuna ikna etti. Dayton'a çok ihtiyaç duyulan tanıtım sağlayacaktır. Robinson'a göre Rappleyea, "Olduğu gibi, yasa uygulanmaz. Kazanırsan, uygulanır. Kazanırsam, yasa kaldırılır. Biz oyunuz, değil mi?". Erkekler daha sonra Dayton lisesinde doğa bilimi ve matematik öğretmeni olan 24 yaşındaki John T. Scopes'u çağırdı. Grup, Scopes'tan evrim teorisini öğrettiğini kabul etmesini istedi.[9][10]

    John Scopes (1925)

    Rappleyea, Butler Yasası ile evrim teorisinin öğretilmesini yasaklarken, devletin öğretmenlerden evrim teorisini açıkça tanımlayan ve destekleyen bir ders kitabı kullanmalarını şart koştuğunu ve bu nedenle öğretmenlerin fiilen yasayı çiğnemeleri gerektiğini belirtti.[11] Scopes, sınıfta gerçekten evrimi öğretip öğretmediğini hatırlayamasa da, sınıfla birlikte evrim çizelgesi yaptıklarını geçtiğini belirtmişti. Gruba eklenen kapsamlar: "Evrimi öğrettiğimi ve sanık olarak nitelendirilebileceğimi ispatlayabilirseniz, o zaman mahkemeye çıkmaya hazırım."[12]

    Source : tr.wikipedia.org

    Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial, also called the ‘Monkey Trial,’ highly publicized trial that took place July 10–21, 1925, during which a Dayton, Tennessee, high-school teacher, John T. Scopes, was charged with violating state law by teaching Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

    Scopes Trial

    law case

    Alternate titles: Monkey Trial

    Print

    By The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica • Edit History

    Scopes Trial See all media

    Date: July 10, 1925 - July 21, 1925

    Location: Dayton Tennessee United States

    Context: evolution Butler Act

    Key People: William Jennings Bryan Clarence Darrow Arthur Garfield Hays

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    Scopes Trial, also called Scopes Monkey Trial, (July 10–21, 1925, Dayton, Tennessee, U.S.), highly publicized trial (known as the “Monkey Trial”) of a Dayton, Tennessee, high-school teacher, John T. Scopes, charged with violating state law by teaching Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. The trial’s proceedings helped to bring the scientific evidence for evolution into the public sphere while also stoking a national debate over the veracity of evolution that continues to the present day.

    anti-evolution book sale

    Anti-evolution books on sale in Dayton, Tennessee, during the Scopes Trial, 1925.

    Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

    In March 1925 the Tennessee legislature had passed the Butler Act, which declared unlawful the teaching of any doctrine denying the divine creation of man as taught by the Bible. World attention focused on the trial proceedings, which promised and delivered confrontation between fundamentalist literal belief and liberal interpretation of the Scriptures. William Jennings Bryan led for the prosecution and Clarence Darrow for the defense.

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    Jury selection began on July 10, and opening statements, which included Darrow’s impassioned speech about the constitutionality of the Butler law and his claim that the law violated freedom of religion, began on July 13. Judge John Raulston ruled out any test of the law’s constitutionality or argument on the validity of evolutionary theory on the basis that Scopes, rather than the Butler law, was on trial. Raulston determined that expert testimony from scientists would be inadmissible.

    The trial’s climax came on July 20, when Darrow called on Bryan to testify as an expert witness for the prosecution on the Bible. Raulston moved the trial to the courthouse lawn, citing the swell of spectators and stifling heat inside. Darrow’s cross-examination challenged Bryan on various biblical stories and the validity and practicality of their literal interpretation. Bryan responded by claiming that Darrow’s “only aim was to cast slurs on the Bible.” With Raulston limiting the trial to the single question of whether Scopes had taught evolution, which he admittedly had, Scopes was convicted and fined $100 on July 21. On appeal, the state Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the 1925 law but acquitted Scopes on the technicality that he had been fined excessively.

    In the trial’s aftermath, Tennessee prevented the teaching of evolution in the classroom until the Butler Act’s repeal in 1967. Additionally, the state legislatures of Mississippi and Arkansas passed their own bans on the teaching of evolution in 1926 and 1928, respectively, which also lasted for several decades before being repealed.

    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by John P. Rafferty.

    Source : www.britannica.com

    Scopes Trial

    The Scopes Trial, also known as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was the 1925 prosecution of science teacher John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee public school, which a recent bill had made illegal.

    Scopes Trial

    Author: History.com Editors Updated: Jun 10, 2019 Original: Nov 17, 2017

    Contents

    Butler Act John Scopes

    William Jennings Bryan

    Clarence Darrow

    William Jennings Bryan Arrives

    Scopes Monkey Trial Begins

    Clarence Darrow’s Speech

    Clarence Darrow’s Plan

    William Jennings Bryan on the Stand

    After the Scopes Trial

    Intelligent Design Sources

    The Scopes Trial, also known as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was the 1925 prosecution of science teacher John Scopes for teaching evolution in a Tennessee public school, which a recent bill had made illegal. The trial featured two of the best-known orators of the era, William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow, as opposing attorneys. The trial was viewed as an opportunity to challenge the constitutionality of the bill, to publicly advocate for the legitimacy of Darwin’s theory of evolution, and to enhance the profile of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

    Butler Act

    The theory of evolution, as presented by Charles Darwin and others, was a controversial concept in many quarters, even into the 20th century.

    Concerted anti-evolutionist efforts in Tennessee succeeded when in 1925, the Tennessee House of Representatives was offered a bill by John W. Butler making teaching evolution a misdemeanor. The so-called Butler Act was passed six days later almost unanimously with no amendments.

    When the ACLU received news of the bill’s passage, it immediately sent out a press release offering to challenge the Butler Act.

    John Scopes

    What became known as the Scopes Monkey Trial began as a publicity stunt for the town of Dayton, Tennessee.

    A local businessman met with the school superintendent and a lawyer to discuss using the ACLU offer to get newspapers to write about the town. The group asked if high school science teacher John Scopes would admit to teaching evolution for the purposes of prosecution.

    Scopes wasn’t clear on whether he had precisely taught the subject, but was sure he’d used materials that included evolution. Scopes taught physics and math, and while he said he accepted evolution, he didn’t teach biology.

    It was announced to newspapers the next day that Scopes had been charged with violating the Butler Act, and the town wired the ACLU to procure its services. The Tennessee press roundly criticized the town, accusing it of staging a trial for publicity.

    William Jennings Bryan

    A preliminary hearing on May 9, 1925, officially held Scopes for trial by the grand jury, though released him and didn’t require him to post bond.

    Three-time presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan volunteered to present for the prosecution. The politician was already well-known as an anti-evolution activist, almost single-handedly creating the national controversy over the teaching of evolution and making his name inseparable from the issue.

    Clarence Darrow

    Author H.G. Wells was approached early on to present the case for evolution, but he turned down the offer.

    Clarence Darrow – a famous attorney who had recently acted for the defense in the notorious Leopold and Loeb murder trial – found out about the Scopes trial through journalist H.L. Mencken, who suggested Darrow should defend Scopes.

    Darrow declined since he was preparing to retire, but news of Bryan’s involvement caused Darrow – who was also a leading member of the ACLU – to change his mind.

    Darrow and Bryan already had a history of butting heads over evolution and the concept of taking the Bible literally, sparring in the press and public debates.

    Darrow’s goal in getting involved was to debunk fundamentalist Christianity and raise awareness of a narrow, fundamentalist interpretation of the Bible. It was the only time in his career he offered to give free legal aid.

    Bryan and Darrow set the tone by immediately attacking each other in the press. The ACLU attempted to remove Darrow from the case, fearing they would lose control, but none of these efforts worked.

    William Jennings Bryan Arrives

    The grand jury met on May 9, 1925. In preparation, Scopes recruited and coached students to testify against him. Three of the seven students attending were called to testify, each showing a sketchy understanding of evolution. The case was pushed forward and a trial set for July 10.

    Bryan arrived in Dayton three days before the trial, stepping off a train to the spectacle of half the town greeting him. He posed for photo opportunities and gave two public speeches, stating his intention to not only defend the anti-evolution law but to use the trial to debunk evolution entirely.

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    Darrow, meanwhile, arrived into Dayton the day before the trial to little fanfare.

    Scopes Monkey Trial Begins

    The trial day started with crowds pouring into the courthouse two hours before it was scheduled to begin, filling up the room and causing onlookers to spill into the hallways. There was applause when Bryan entered the court and further when he and Darrow shook hands.

    Source : www.history.com

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