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    British Agricultural Revolution

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    British Agricultural Revolution

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    British Agricultural Revolution

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    The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain arising from increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the hundred-year period ending in 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. This increase in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.5 million in 1700 to over 9 million by 1801, though domestic production gave way increasingly to food imports in the nineteenth century as the population more than tripled to over 35 million.[1] Using 1700 as a base year (=100), agricultural output per agricultural worker in Britain steadily increased from about 50 in 1500, to around 65 in 1550, to 90 in 1600, to over 100 by 1650, to over 150 by 1750, rapidly increasing to over 250 by 1850.[2] The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour force, adding to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution.

    However, historians continue to dispute when exactly such a "revolution" took place and of what it consisted. Rather than a single event, G. E. Mingay states that there were a "profusion of agricultural revolutions, one for two centuries before 1650, another emphasising the century after 1650, a third for the period 1750–1780, and a fourth for the middle decades of the nineteenth century".[3] This has led more recent historians to argue that any general statements about "the Agricultural Revolution" are difficult to sustain.[4][5]

    One important change in farming methods was the move in crop rotation to turnips and clover in place of fallow. Turnips can be grown in winter and are deep-rooted, allowing them to gather minerals unavailable to shallow-rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser. This permitted the intensive arable cultivation of light soils on enclosed farms and provided fodder to support increased livestock numbers whose manure added further to soil fertility.

    Contents

    1 Major developments and innovations

    1.1 Crop rotation

    1.2 The Dutch and Rotherham swing (wheel-less) plough

    1.3 New crops 1.4 Enclosure

    1.5 Development of a national market

    1.6 Transportation infrastructures

    1.7 Land conversion, drainage and reclamation

    1.8 Rise in domestic farmers

    1.9 Human Capital Effects

    1.10 Selective breeding of livestock

    2 British agriculture, 1800–1900

    2.1 Seed planting 3 Significance 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 6.1 Historiography 7 External links

    Major developments and innovations[edit]

    The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economic and farming technological changes. Major developments and innovations include:[6]

    Norfolk four-course crop rotation: Fodder crops, particularly turnips and clover, replaced leaving the land fallow.[7]

    The Dutch improved the Chinese plough so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses.

    Enclosure: the removal of common rights to establish exclusive ownership of land

    Development of a national market free of tariffs, tolls and customs barriers

    Transportation infrastructures, such as improved roads, canals, and later, railways

    Land conversion, land drains and reclamation

    Increase in farm size

    Selective breeding

    Crop rotation[edit]

    Crop Yield net of Seed

    (bushels/acre)[8]

    Year Wheat Rye Barley Oats Peas

    beans Growth rate (%/year)$

    1250–1299 8.71 10.71 10.25 7.24 6.03 −0.27

    1300–1349 8.24 10.36 9.46 6.60 6.14 −0.032

    1350–1399 7.46 9.21 9.74 7.49 5.86 0.61

    1400–1449 5.89 10.46 8.44 6.55 5.42 0.08

    1450–1499 6.48 13.96 8.56 5.95 4.49 0.48

    1550–1599 7.88 9.21 8.40 7.87 7.62 −0.16

    1600–1649 10.45 16.28 11.16 10.97 8.62 −0.11

    1650–1699 11.36 14.19 12.48 10.82 8.39 0.64

    1700–1749 13.79 14.82 15.08 12.27 10.23 0.70

    1750–1799 17.26 17.87 21.88 20.90 14.19 0.37

    1800–1849 23.16 19.52 25.90 28.37 17.85 0.63

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    The Industrial Age Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like During the Agricultural Revolution, what was the main advantage of tenant farming rather than moving to the city for work? Tenant farmers could use a skill they already had rather than starting over. The future lay in farming instead of in the types of jobs people could find in cities. Landowners gave tenant farmers large plots of land for their personal use. Tenant farmers managed other workers but did not have to do manual labor., What role did crop rotation play in the Agricultural Revolution? It enabled farmers to plant many new types of crops. It allowed farmers to share crops with one another. It introduced new machines to plant and harvest crops. It helped restore nutrients to the soil so crops grew better., How would life have been different in the 1800s if the steam locomotive had not been invented? Products would have been more expensive. Locomotives would have used wood or coal. Most goods would have been transported by wagon. Most goods would have been transported by steamboat. and more.

    The Industrial Age

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    During the Agricultural Revolution, what was the main advantage of tenant farming rather than moving to the city for work?

    Tenant farmers could use a skill they already had rather than starting over.

    The future lay in farming instead of in the types of jobs people could find in cities.

    Landowners gave tenant farmers large plots of land for their personal use.

    Tenant farmers managed other workers but did not have to do manual labor.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Tenant farmers could use a skill they already had rather than starting over.

    Click again to see term 👆

    What role did crop rotation play in the Agricultural Revolution?

    It enabled farmers to plant many new types of crops.

    It allowed farmers to share crops with one another.

    It introduced new machines to plant and harvest crops.

    It helped restore nutrients to the soil so crops grew better.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    It helped restore nutrients to the soil so crops grew better.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/10 Created by Shaquille0atmeal

    Terms in this set (10)

    During the Agricultural Revolution, what was the main advantage of tenant farming rather than moving to the city for work?

    Tenant farmers could use a skill they already had rather than starting over.

    The future lay in farming instead of in the types of jobs people could find in cities.

    Landowners gave tenant farmers large plots of land for their personal use.

    Tenant farmers managed other workers but did not have to do manual labor.

    Tenant farmers could use a skill they already had rather than starting over.

    What role did crop rotation play in the Agricultural Revolution?

    It enabled farmers to plant many new types of crops.

    It allowed farmers to share crops with one another.

    It introduced new machines to plant and harvest crops.

    It helped restore nutrients to the soil so crops grew better.

    It helped restore nutrients to the soil so crops grew better.

    How would life have been different in the 1800s if the steam locomotive had not been invented?

    Products would have been more expensive.

    Locomotives would have used wood or coal.

    Most goods would have been transported by wagon.

    Most goods would have been transported by steamboat.

    Products would have been more expensive.

    Prices for products became more affordable as a result of new forms of _________, which got things to market faster and cheaper.

    Agriculture Machinery Textiles Transportation Transportation

    Before the Agricultural Revolution, many people lived in rural areas because

    they could grow food on small areas of land.

    nearby farms produced plenty of food.

    they could grow crops quickly and efficiently.

    wealthy landowners gave them jobs on farms.

    they could grow food on small areas of land.

    An effect of the Industrial Revolution was that wages around the world

    varied. increased. decreased. stayed static. increased.

    The purpose of a spinning jenny was to

    increase the speed of textile production.

    streamline the production of cotton.

    produce more power to run machines.

    improve the quality of soil on farms.

    increase the speed of textile production.

    What started the modern Agricultural Revolution?

    new types of crops

    improved farming methods

    greater demand for food

    more fertile soil

    improved farming methods

    How did steam locomotives lower the cost of transporting raw materials and finished goods?

    They cost nothing to run because they ran on steam.

    They could transport many materials or goods at once.

    They were uncomplicated and inexpensive to build.

    They were safe and cut the chance of costly accidents.

    They could transport many materials or goods at once.

    Which describes the connection between a mechanical loom and a cotton gin?

    The gin was invented first to increase textile production, and then the loom produced more cotton.

    The loom and the gin were invented at the same time to improve textile production.

    The loom and the gin were invented at the same time to improve cotton production.

    The loom was invented first to increase textile production, and then the gin produced more cotton.

    The loom was invented first to increase textile production, and then the gin produced more cotton.

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