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    Muscle Contraction and Locomotion

    Muscle Contraction and Locomotion

    Muscle Contraction and Locomotion Structure and Function of the Muscular System

    The muscular system controls numerous functions, which is possible with the significant differentiation of muscle tissue morphology and ability.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Describe the three types of muscle tissue

    KEY TAKEAWAYS

    Key Points

    The muscular system is responsible for functions such as maintenance of posture, locomotion, and control of various circulatory systems.

    Muscle tissue can be divided functionally (voluntarily or involuntarily controlled) and morphologically ( striated or non-striated).

    These classifications describe three distinct muscle types: skeletal, cardiac and smooth. Skeletal muscle is voluntary and striated, cardiac muscle is involuntary and striated, and smooth muscle is involuntary and non-striated.

    Key Terms

    myofibril: A fiber made up of several myofilaments that facilitates the generation of tension in a myocyte.myofilament: A filament composed of either multiple myosin or actin proteins that slide over each other to generate tension.myosin: A motor protein which forms myofilaments that interact with actin filaments to generate tension.actin: A protein which forms myofilaments that interact with myosin filaments to generate tension.striated: The striped appearance of certain muscle types in which myofibrils are aligned to produce a constant directional tension.voluntary: A muscle movement under conscious control (e.g. deciding to move the forearm).involuntary: A muscle movement not under conscious control (e.g. the beating of the heart).myocyte: A muscle cell.

    The Musculoskeletal System

    The muscular system is made up of muscle tissue and is responsible for functions such as maintenance of posture, locomotion and control of various circulatory systems. This includes the beating of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system. The muscular system is closely associated with the skeletal system in facilitating movement. Both voluntary and involuntary muscular system functions are controlled by the nervous system.

    The muscular system: Skeletal muscle of the muscular system is closely associated with the skeletal system and acts to maintain posture and control voluntary movement.

    Muscle is a highly-specialized soft tissue that produces tension which results in the generation of force. Muscle cells, or myocytes, contain myofibrils comprised of actin and myosin myofilaments which slide past each other producing tension that changes the shape of the myocyte. Numerous myocytes make up muscle tissue and the controlled production of tension in these cells can generate significant force.

    Muscle tissue can be classified functionally as voluntary or involuntary and morphologically as striated or non-striated. Voluntary refers to whether the muscle is under conscious control, while striation refers to the presence of visible banding within myocytes caused by the organization of myofibrils to produce constant tension.

    Types of Muscle

    The above classifications describe three forms of muscle tissue that perform a wide range of diverse functions.

    Skeletal Muscle

    Skeletal muscle mainly attaches to the skeletal system via tendons to maintain posture and control movement. For example, contraction of the biceps muscle, attached to the scapula and radius, will raise the forearm. Some skeletal muscle can attach directly to other muscles or to the skin, as seen in

    the face where numerous muscles control facial expression.

    Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, although this can be subconscious when maintaining posture or balance. Morphologically skeletal myocytes are elongated and tubular and appear striated with multiple peripheral nuclei.

    Cardiac Muscle Tissue

    Cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart, where cardiac contractions pump blood throughout the body and maintain blood pressure.

    As with skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle is striated; however it is not consciously controlled and so is classified as involuntary. Cardiac muscle can be further differentiated from skeletal muscle by the presence of intercalated discs that control the synchronized contraction of cardiac tissues. Cardiac myocytes are shorter than skeletal equivalents and contain only one or two centrally located nuclei.

    Smooth Muscle Tissue

    Smooth muscle tissue is associated with numerous organs and tissue systems, such as the digestive system and respiratory system. It plays an important role in the regulation of flow in such systems, such as aiding the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

    Smooth muscle is non-striated and involuntary. Smooth muscle myocytes are spindle shaped with a single centrally located nucleus.

    Types of muscle: The body contains three types of muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle, visualized here using light microscopy. Visible striations in skeletal and cardiac muscle are visible, differentiating them from the more randomised appearance of smooth muscle.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites? A) myosin filaments B) actin filaments C) Z discs D) thick filaments

    Answer to: During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites? A) myosin filaments B) actin filaments C) Z discs D) thick...

    Exercise physiology

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites? A) myosin filaments...

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites? A) myosin filaments... Question:

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

    A) myosin filaments B) actin filaments C) Z discs D) thick filaments

    ATP binding on Muscles:

    For proper contraction to take place, ATP is required. Binding of ATP takes place in the filaments. ATP is then hydrolyzed, releasing energy as it is required. ATP is required for the movement of the filaments. As ATP levels drop below the normal level, muscles begin to become fatigued.

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    The correct answer: During muscle contraction, myosin cross-bridges attach to B) actin filaments.

    Muscle contraction is a process in which the...

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    Muscle Contraction: Actin and Myosin Bonding

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    Chapter 17 / Lesson 6

    165K

    What happens when a muscle contracts? Learn about the muscle contraction process and the role of the proteins actin and myosin in muscle contraction, as well as the types of muscle contraction and regulatory proteins.

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    Exam 2 Flashcards

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    Exam 2

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

    A) actin filaments B) Z discs C) thick filaments D) myosin filaments

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    A) actin filaments

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    This _______ gland in the axilla become ative at the time of puberty.

    a. eccrine sweat b. aprocrine sweat c. axillary d. sebaceous e. ceruminous

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    b. aprocrine sweat

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    1/93 Created by cresie123

    Terms in this set (93)

    During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?

    A) actin filaments B) Z discs C) thick filaments D) myosin filaments A) actin filaments

    This _______ gland in the axilla become ative at the time of puberty.

    a. eccrine sweat b. aprocrine sweat c. axillary d. sebaceous e. ceruminous b. aprocrine sweat

    Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________________________.

    a. maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules

    b. accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion forming a UV blocking pigment layer

    c. maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will no denature

    d. provide the melanocyte with nutrients necessary for melanin synthesis

    b. accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion forming a UV blocking pigment layer

    A group of concentric rings of bone matrix comprising the functional unit of long bones is called a(n) ____________

    a. lamella b. osteon c. pillar system d. Sharpey's fibers b. osteon

    What would long bone growth look like in an individual whose cartilage in the epiphyseal disc stopped dividing?

    a. the long bones would grow excessively

    b. the long bones would cease to growth in length

    c. the long bones would cease growth in width

    d. the long bones would appear normal

    b. the long bones would cease to growth in length

    Which of the following bone cell types is primarily responsible for initiating ossification of bone?

    a. osteoblasts b. osteoclasts c. osteocytes d. chondroblasts a. osteoblasts

    Which of the following correctly lists the three structural types of joints?

    a. Bony, cartilaginous, immovable

    b. synarthrotic, diarthrotic, amphiarthrotic

    c. fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

    d. sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

    c. fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial

    All synovial joints are _________

    a. diarthrotic b. amphiarthrotic c. synarthrotic

    d. none of the above

    a. diarthrotic

    The most common form of chronic arthritis is __________.

    a. osteoarthritis

    b. rheumatoid arthritis

    c. gouty arthritis d. subluxation a. osteoarthritis

    Of the following muscle types which is the only one subject to conscious control

    a. smooth b. skeletal c. cardiac d. all of the above b. skeletal

    The time period between action potential initiation and mechanical activity of a muscle fiber is called ______.

    a. latent period

    b. refractory period

    c. action potential

    d. excitation period

    a. latent period

    Corpses usually exhibit rigor mortis because_________

    a. ATP hydrolysis is stimulating myosin head attachment to actin

    b. a lack of ATP hydrolysis prevents myosin head detachment from actin

    c. calcium stores become deficient

    d. sodium stores become deficient

    b. a lack of ATP hydrolysis prevents myosin head detachment from actin

    Isometric contractions come into play when an individual is ________.

    a. jumping b. walking uphill

    c. moving a very heavy object

    d. maintaining an upright posture

    d. maintaining an upright posture

    What type of exercise can convert fast oxidative fibers to fast glycolytic fibers?

    a. resistance exercise

    b. aerobic exercise c. Both A and B

    d. muscle fibers cannot change type

    a. resistance exercise

    A major difference between smooth muscle fibers and skeletal muscle fibers in terms of calcium influx is that ________.

    a. smooth muscle fibers have a sarcoplasmoic reticulum

    b.calcium ions are sorted in the sarcoplasm of the smooth muscle

    c. calcium ion influx occurs mostly from the extracellular matrix fluid in the smooth muscle

    d. smooth muscle contraction does not involve calcium

    c. calcium ion influx occurs mostly from the extracellular matrix fluid in the smooth muscle

    Osteocytes are found in _____________.

    a. central canals

    b. perforating canals

    c. lacunae d. lamallae c. lacunae

    What anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone?

    a. b. trabecular c. canaliculi d. Sharpey's fibers d. Sharpey's fibers

    Which part of the long bone are you studying if you are looking at the articular cartilage?

    a. osteon b. epiphysis c. metaphysis d. diaphysis b. epiphysis

    Spongy bone is mad eup of small, flat pieces of bone called _________.

    a. perforating canals

    b. canaliculi

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