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    describe how each type of burn would affect the functions of the skin. think about which layers and accessory structures have been damaged and describe how this damage can impact overall health.

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    Burns and Wounds

    Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, burn treatment, and burn rehabilitation.

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    Burns and Wounds

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    Overview

    Burns are a type of painful wound caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Smoking and open flame are the leading causes of burn injury for older adults. Scalding is the leading cause of burn injury for children. Both infants and the older adults are at the greatest risk for burn injury.

    What are the different types of burns?

    There are many types of burns caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact.

    Thermal burns. These burns are due to heat sources which raise the temperature of the skin and tissues and cause tissue cell death or charring. Hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames, when coming into contact with the skin, can cause thermal burns.Radiation burns. These burns are due to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun, or to other sources of radiation such as X-ray.Chemical burns. These burns are due to strong acids, alkalies, detergents, or solvents coming into contact with the skin or eyes.Electrical burns. These burns are from electrical current, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

    The skin and its functions

    The skin is the largest organ of the body and has many important functions. It is made up of several layers, with each layer having a specific functions:

    Layer FunctionEpidermis

    The epidermis is the thin, outer layer of the skin with many layers including:

    Stratum corneum (horny layer)

    This layer is made up of cells containing the protein keratin. it keeps body fluid in while keeping external substances out. As the outermost layer, it continuously flakes off.

    Keratinocytes (squamous cells)

    This layer is made up of living cells that are maturing and moving toward the surface to become the stratum corneum.

    Basal layer

    This layer is where new skin cells divide to replace the old cells that are shed at the surface.

    The epidermis also contains melanocytes, which are cells that produce melanin (skin pigment).

    Dermis

    The dermis is the middle layer of the skin. The dermis contains the following:

    Blood vessels Lymph vessels Hair follicles Sweat glands Collagen bundles Fibroblasts Nerves

    The dermis is held together by a protein called collagen, made by fibroblasts. This layer also contains nerve endings that conduct pain and touch signals.

    Subcutis

    The subcutis is the deepest layer of skin. The subcutis, consisting of a network of collagen and fat cells, helps conserve the body's heat and protects the body from injury by acting as a "shock absorber."

    In addition to serving as a protective shield against heat, light, injury, and infection, the skin also:

    Regulates body temperature

    Stores water and fat

    Is a sensory organ Prevents water loss

    Prevents entry of bacteria

    What are the classifications of burns?

    Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severely they penetrate the skin's surface.

    First-degree (superficial) burns

    First-degree burns affect only the epidermis, or outer layer of skin. The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example. Long-term tissue damage is rare and usually involves an increase or decrease in the skin color.

    Second-degree (partial thickness) burns

    Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the dermis layer of skin. The burn site appears red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.

    Third-degree (full thickness) burns

    Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. Third-degree burns may also damage the underlying bones, muscles, and tendons. When bones, muscles, or tendons are also burned, this may be referred to as a fourth-degree burn. The burn site appears white or charred. There is no feeling in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.

    Burns that are more severe and extensive need specialized treatment. Because the age of a burn victim and the percentage of the body's surface area that has been burned are the most important factors affecting the outlook of a burn injury, the American Burn Association recommends that burn patients who meet the following criteria should be treated at a specialized burn center:

    Individuals with partial-thickness burns over 10% or more of the total body surface area (TBSA)

    Any age with full-thickness burns

    Burns of the face, hands, feet, or groin, or genital area, or burns that extend all the way around a portion of the body

    Burns accompanied by an inhalation injury affecting the airway or the lungs

    Burn patients with existing chronic conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney disease, or multiple sclerosis

    Suspected child or elder abuse

    Chemical burn Electrical injury

    Source : www.hopkinsmedicine.org

    Burns: Types, Symptoms & Treatment

    Burns damage skin and tissue. Children and older adults are most at risk for burns from cooking accidents and fires, as well as sunburns

    Burns

    Burns are tissue damage brought on by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation or the sun. Nearly half a million Americans seek medical care for accidental burns each year. First-degree burns, and most second-degree burns, heal with at-home treatments. Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and require specialized medical care.

    OVERVIEW

    What is a burn?

    A burn occurs when heat, chemicals, sunlight, electricity or radiation damages skin tissue. Most burns happen accidentally. There are different degrees of burns. Your healthcare provider determines the seriousness (degree) of a burn based on the depth of the burn and the amount of affected skin. Burns can be painful. Left untreated, a burn can lead to infection.

    Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Policy

    How common are burns?

    Close to half a million people go to the emergency department every year with burn injuries. Children are at high risk for accidental burns. Every day, more than 300 children receive emergency treatment for burn injuries.

    Who might get a burn?

    Accidental burns can happen to anyone, although children, teenagers and older people are most at risk. These age groups are more prone to burn injuries from cooking, such as spilling a boiling pan of water onto skin. Children and teens are also more likely to mess around with lighters, matches and fireworks or get sunburns.

    What are the types of burns?

    Healthcare providers classify burns by degrees of severity. Your provider will evaluate the extent of skin damage. Burn degrees include:

    First-degree burns are mild (like most sunburns). The top layer of skin (epidermis) turns red and is painful but doesn’t typically blister.Second-degree burns affect skin’s top and lower layers (dermis). You may experience pain, redness, swelling and blistering.Third-degree burns affect all three skin layers: epidermis, dermis and fat. The burn also destroys hair follicles and sweat glands. Because third-degree burns damage nerve endings, you probably won’t feel pain in the area of the burn itself, rather adjacent to it. Burned skin may be black, white or red with a leathery appearance.

    SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES

    What causes burns?

    Many things can cause a burn. Thermal sources, including fire, hot liquids, steam and contact with hot surfaces, are the most common causes of burns. Other causes include exposure to:

    Chemicals, such as cement, acids or drain cleaners.

    Radiation. Electricity.

    Sun (ultraviolet or UV light).

    What are the signs of burns?

    Burn symptoms vary depending on the severity or degree of the burn. Symptoms are often worse during the first few hours or days after the burn. Burn symptoms include:

    Blisters. Pain. Swelling.

    White or charred (black) skin.

    Peeling skin.

    DIAGNOSIS AND TESTS

    How are burns diagnosed?

    Your healthcare provider will examine the burn to determine the degree or severity. This process involves estimating the percentage of the body affected by the burn and its depth. Your provider may classify the burn as:

    Minor: First- and second-degree burns that cover less than 10% of the body are considered minor and rarely require hospitalization.Moderate: Second-degree burns that cover about 10% of the body are classified as moderate. Burns on the hands, feet, face or genitals can range from moderate to severe.Severe: Third-degree burns that cover more than 1% of the body are considered severe.

    MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT

    How are burns managed or treated?

    Burn treatment varies depending on the cause and severity. You need to keep all burns clean and apply proper bandages/dressing depending on the severity of the wounds. Treating the person’s pain is key: inadequate control can interfere with wound care.

    Continue to check wounds for signs of infection and other long term issues, such as scarring and tightening of the skin over joints and muscles, which makes them difficult to move.

    Treatments by burn type include:

    First-degree burns: Run cool water over the burn. Don’t apply ice. For sunburns, apply aloe vera gel. For thermal burns, apply antibiotic cream and cover lightly with gauze. You can also take over-the-counter pain medication.Second-degree burns: Treatment for second- and first-degree burns is similar. Your healthcare provider may prescribe a stronger antibiotic cream that contains silver, such as silver sulfadiazine, to kill bacteria. Elevating the burned area can reduce pain and swelling.Third-degree burns: Third-degree burns can be life-threatening and often require skin grafts. Skin grafts replace damaged tissue with healthy skin from another of the uninjured part of the person’s body. The area where the skin graft is taken from generally heals on its own. If the person does not have enough skin available for a graft at the time of injury, a temporary source of graft can come from a deceased donor or a human-made (artificial) source but these will eventually need to be replace by the person’s own skin. Treatment also includes extra fluids (usually given intravenously, with an IV) to keep blood pressure steady and prevent shock and dehydration.

    Source : my.clevelandclinic.org

    HBS: Skin 5.1 Study Guide Flashcards

    Answers to the essential questions found on "Lesson 5.1 Key Terms and Understandings" Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

    HBS: Skin 5.1 Study Guide

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    What is skin?

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    Skin is a living, functioning organ that plays a key role in maintaining the body's homeostasis.

    The skin is a dynamic organ that functions in protection, temperature regulation, sensation, excretion, and absorption in the body.

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    What are the 3 layers of skin?

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    The epidermis The dermis

    The subcutaneous layer

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    Terms in this set (29)

    What is skin?

    Skin is a living, functioning organ that plays a key role in maintaining the body's homeostasis.

    The skin is a dynamic organ that functions in protection, temperature regulation, sensation, excretion, and absorption in the body.

    What are the 3 layers of skin?

    The epidermis The dermis

    The subcutaneous layer

    What are the functions of the skin?

    To act as a "first line defense" and protect the internal body parts

    To act as a protective coat against foreign bacteria

    To cool the body/warm the body

    To sense different feelings

    What types of tissue make up the layers of the skin?

    The epithelial tissue, the connective tissue, the nervous tissue, and the muscle tissue make up the layers of the skin.

    What role do accessory organs such as sweat glands and sebaceous glands play in the skin?

    Accessory organs, such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands, play specific jobs in the skin. Sweat glands produce sweat to cool the body down as well as wash away dirt and debris that can try to move into skin. Sebaceous glands are the glands from which oil is secreted. These oils act as lubricators and cleaners for our skin, even though they can sometimes clog hair follicles, causing acne. Other accessory organs, such as the nerves, act as receptors for different sensations such as coldness or pain.

    What happens to skin as it's exposed to sunlight?

    When skin is exposed to sunlight, melanin production is increased. Melanin is a protein that provides the pigmentation in our skin that gives us our skin complexion. Melanin helps to absorb the UV light and protect your skin from it. Your skin can also burn depending on your skin's melanin levels.

    What happens to skin as a person ages?

    As a person ages, their skin goes through a variety of changes. Their skin starts out smooth and supple, then when your body goes through a series of hormonal changes, your glands' production is in full effect (which can sometimes result in acne), then the skin is at a supple, growing stage. As you move closer to your middle ages, your skin may begin thinning a bit, being a little drier than it used to be, and my sag in some places. As you get even older, the skin loses fat, as well as the proteins that kept it full, smooth, and stretchable. Wrinkles form.

    Which lays of the skin are damaged in different types of burns?

    The epidermis layer is damaged during all burns. During second degree burns, the top of the dermis layer is damaged. During third degree burns, the burn penetrates through to the top of the subcutaneous layer, meaning all or the majority of the accessory organs are greatly damaged or destroyed. During a fourth degree burn, the burn penetrates through all three layers, reaching muscles, tendons, and bones.

    How does burn damage in the skin affect other functions in the body?

    Burn damages affects other functions in the body in many ways. One example is how the damage can cause your immune system to be more susceptible to infection because your skin can no longer protect your body from foreign invaders.

    How do medical professionals in different fields assist with burn care and rehabilitation?

    Burn care nurse: cares for burn victim

    Anesthesiologist: provides victim with anesthesia to relieve victim of pain when first seen and/or before surgery

    Reconstructive Surgeon: uses plastic surgery to correct deformities caused to the burn's area

    Physical Therapist: helps victim regain endurance, strength, and balance after burn accident

    Psychologist: strive to reduce the distress and shock the burn victim suffers from

    What role does pain play in the body?

    Pain acts an alert to the body when a specific area is experiencing pain or discomfort (which the nerves may interpret as pain). This "alert" is just to tell the person that they either need to move, tend to that place experiencing pain, or seek medical attention.

    How does the body interpret and process pain?

    The body interprets and processes pain by the nerves in the area where the pain is located sending a 'message' to the brain to communicate that there's pain in that particular place. This 'message' travels through the spinal cord, crossing a synapse, and making it to the brain. The brain then sends endorphin to the area of pain, and either doesn't allow the area to feel pain so the person has time to react and try to help their self (with the endorphin's "numbing affect"), or sends a message back the area of pain, resulting in them experiencing the pain.

    Source : quizlet.com

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