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    daniel is a middle-income medicare beneficiary. he has chronic bronchitis, putting him at severe risk for pneumonia. otherwise, he has no problems functioning. which type of snp is likely to be most appropriate for him?

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    Chronic Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the airways that carry air to your lungs. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition. Discover symptoms and treatment.

    Chronic Bronchitis

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    Summary

    What is chronic bronchitis?

    Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD is a group of lung diseases that make it hard to breathe and get worse over time. The other main type of COPD is emphysema. Most people with COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, but how severe each type is can be different from person to person.

    Chronic bronchitis is inflammation (swelling) and irritation of the bronchial tubes. These tubes are the airways that carry air to and from the air sacs in your lungs. The irritation of the tubes causes mucus to build up. This mucus and the swelling of the tubes make it harder for your lungs to move oxygen in and carbon dioxide out of your body.

    What causes chronic bronchitis?

    The cause of chronic bronchitis is usually long-term exposure to irritants that damage your lungs and airways. In the United States, cigarette smoke is the main cause. Pipe, cigar, and other types of tobacco smoke can also cause chronic bronchitis, especially if you inhale them.

    Exposure to other inhaled irritants can contribute to chronic bronchitis. These include secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes or dusts from the environment or workplace.

    Rarely, a genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can play a role in causing chronic bronchitis.

    Who is at risk for chronic bronchitis?

    The risk factors for chronic bronchitis include:

    Smoking. This the main risk factor. Up to 75% of people who have chronic bronchitis smoke or used to smoke.Long-term exposure to other lung irritants, such as secondhand smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes and dusts from the environment or workplace.Age. Most people who have chronic bronchitis are at least 40 years old when their symptoms begin.Genetics. This includes alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, which is a genetic condition. Also, smokers who get chronic bronchitis are more likely to get it if they have a family history of COPD.

    What are the symptoms of chronic bronchitis?

    At first, you may have no symptoms or only mild symptoms. As the disease gets worse, your symptoms usually become more severe. They can include:

    Frequent coughing or a cough that produces a lot mucus

    Wheezing

    A whistling or squeaky sound when you breathe

    Shortness of breath, especially with physical activity

    Tightness in your chest

    Some people with chronic bronchitis get frequent respiratory infections such as colds and the flu. In severe cases, chronic bronchitis can cause weight loss, weakness in your lower muscles, and swelling in your ankles, feet, or legs.

    How is chronic bronchitis diagnosed?

    Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis:

    A medical history, which includes asking about your symptoms

    A family history

    Various tests, such as lung function tests, a chest x-ray or CT scan, and blood tests

    What are the treatments for chronic bronchitis?

    There is no cure for chronic bronchitis. However, treatments can help with symptoms, slow the progress of the disease, and improve your ability to stay active. There are also treatments to prevent or treat complications of the disease. Treatments include:

    Lifestyle changes, such as

    Quitting smoking if you are a smoker. This is the most important step you can take to treat chronic bronchitis.

    Avoiding secondhand smoke and places where you might breathe in other lung irritants

    Ask your health care provider for an eating plan that will meet your nutritional needs. Also ask about how much physical activity you can do. Physical activity can strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and improve your overall wellness.

    Medicines, such as

    Bronchodilators, which relax the muscles around your airways. This helps open your airways and makes breathing easier. Most bronchodilators are taken through an inhaler. In more severe cases, the inhaler may also contain steroids to reduce inflammation.

    Vaccines for the flu and pneumococcal pneumonia, since people with chronic bronchitis are at higher risk for serious problems from these diseases.

    Antibiotics if you get a bacterial or viral lung infection

    Oxygen therapy, if you have severe chronic bronchitis and low levels of oxygen in your blood. Oxygen therapy can help you breathe better. You may need extra oxygen all the time or only at certain times.Pulmonary rehabilitation, which is a program that helps improve the well-being of people who have chronic breathing problems. It may include

    An exercise program

    Disease management training

    Nutritional counseling

    Psychological counseling

    A lung transplant, as a last resort for people who have severe symptoms that have not gotten better with medicines

    If you have chronic bronchitis, it's important to know when and where to get help for your symptoms. You should get emergency care if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble catching your breath or talking. Call your health care provider if your symptoms are getting worse or if you have signs of an infection, such as a fever.

    Source : medlineplus.gov

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    Daniel is a middle-income Medicare beneficiary. He has chronic bronchitis, putting him at severe risk for pneumonia. Otherwise, he has no problems functioning. Which type of SNP is likely to be most appropriate for him?

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    C-SNP

    Correct: Because Daniel's bronchitis is a chronic condition, a Chronic condition SNP would be most appropriate for him to enroll in.

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    Mr. Lopez has heard that he can sign up for a product called "Medicare Advantage" but is not sure about what type of plan designs are available through this program. What should you tell him about the types of health plans that are available through the Medicare Advantage program?

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    They are Medicare health plans such as HMOs, PPOs, PFFS, and MSAs.

    Correct: There are coordinated care Medicare Advantage plans that include HMOs and PPOs. There are also Private-Fee-for-Service (PFFS), Medicare Savings Account (MSA), and Special Needs Plans (SNPs).

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    Daniel is a middle-income Medicare beneficiary. He has chronic bronchitis, putting him at severe risk for pneumonia. Otherwise, he has no problems functioning. Which type of SNP is likely to be most appropriate for him?

    C-SNP

    Correct: Because Daniel's bronchitis is a chronic condition, a Chronic condition SNP would be most appropriate for him to enroll in.

    Mr. Lopez has heard that he can sign up for a product called "Medicare Advantage" but is not sure about what type of plan designs are available through this program. What should you tell him about the types of health plans that are available through the Medicare Advantage program?

    They are Medicare health plans such as HMOs, PPOs, PFFS, and MSAs.

    Correct: There are coordinated care Medicare Advantage plans that include HMOs and PPOs. There are also Private-Fee-for-Service (PFFS), Medicare Savings Account (MSA), and Special Needs Plans (SNPs).

    Mr. Gomez notes that a Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) plan available in his area has an attractive premium. He wants to know if he must use doctors in a network as his current HMO plan requires him to do. What should you tell him?

    He may receive health care services from any doctor allowed to bill Medicare, as long as he shows the doctor the plan's identification card and the doctor agrees to accept the PFFS plan's payment terms and conditions, which could include balance billing.

    Correct: Mr. Gomez may receive health care services from any doctor allowed to bill Medicare, provided he shows the doctor the plan's identification card, and the doctor accepts the PFFS's payment terms and conditions. These terms may include balance billing up to 15% of the Medicare rate.

    Mrs. Davenport enrolled in the ABC Medicare Advantage (MA) plan several years ago. In mid-February of 2021, her doctor confirms a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). What options will Mrs. Davenport have regarding her MA plan during the next open enrollment season?

    .

    She may remain in her ABC MA plan, enroll in another MA plan in her service area, or enroll in a Special Needs Plan (SNP) for individuals suffering from ESRD if one is available in her area.

    Correct: Mrs. Davenport has three clear choices: (1) remain in the ABC MA plan, (2) enroll in another MA plan in her service area, or (3) enroll in a Special Needs Plan (SPN) for persons suffering from ESRD if one is available in her area.

    Which of the following statement is/are correct about a Medicare Savings Account (MSA) Plans?

    I, II, and IV only

    Correct: MSAs may not have a network or may have a full or partial network of providers. MSAs cover Part A and Part B benefits after the deductible. All non-network providers must accept the same amount that Original Medicare would pay them as payment in full. This is the amount the enrollee will pay the provider before the deductible is met.

    Mr. Lombardi is interested in a Medicare Advantage (MA) PPO plan that you represent. It is one of three plans operated by the same organization in Mr. Lombardi's area. The MA PPO plan does not include drug coverage, but the other two plans do. Mr. Lombardi likes the PPO plan that does not include drug coverage and intends to obtain his drug coverage through a stand-alone Medicare prescription drug plan. What should you tell him about this situation?

    He could enroll either in one of the MA plans that include prescription drug coverage or Original Medicare with a Medigap plan and standalone Part D prescription drug coverage, but he cannot enroll in the MA-only PPO plan and a stand-alone prescription drug plan.

    Correct: If a beneficiary enrolls in a MA PPO plan that does not include Part D coverage, the beneficiary cannot join a stand-alone Prescription Drug Plan (PDP).

    Mr. Romero is 64, retiring soon, and considering enrollment in his employer-sponsored retiree group health plan that includes drug coverage with nominal copays. He heard about a neighbor's MA-PD plan that you represent and because he takes numerous prescription drugs, he is considering signing up for it. What should you tell him?

    He should compare the benefits in his employer-sponsored retiree group health plan with the benefits in his neighbor's MA-PD plan to determine which one will provide sufficient coverage for his prescription needs.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Bronchitis

    Find out about bronchitis, including the difference between acute and chronic bronchitis, plus the symptoms, causes, treatment, complications and when to see a GP.

    Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs (bronchi), causing them to become irritated and inflamed.

    The main airways branch off on either side of your windpipe (trachea).

    They lead to smaller and smaller airways inside your lungs called bronchioles.

    The walls of the main airways produce mucus to trap dust and other particles that could otherwise cause irritation.

    Most cases of bronchitis happen when an infection irritates and inflames the airways, causing them to produce more mucus than usual.

    Your body tries to shift this extra mucus through coughing.

    Bronchitis can be described as being either acute bronchitis or chronic bronchitis.

    Acute bronchitis is temporary inflammation of the airways that causes a cough and mucus. It lasts up to 3 weeks.

    It can affect people of all ages, but mostly happens in children under the age of 5.

    It's more common in winter and often comes on after a common cold, sore throat or the flu.

    Chronic bronchitis is a daily productive cough that lasts for 3 months of the year and for at least 2 years in a row.

    It's 1 of a number of lung conditions, including emphysema, that are collectively known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    It mostly affects adults over the age of 40.

    It's important that you stop smoking if you have bronchitis.

    Cigarette smoke and the chemicals in cigarettes make bronchitis worse and increase your risk of developing chronic bronchitis and COPD.

    A GP can help you quit smoking.

    You can also call the NHS Smokefree helpline for advice on 0300 123 1044, Monday to Friday, 9am to 8pm, and Saturday and Sunday, 11am to 4pm.

    Information:

    Coronavirus advice

    If you have bronchitis and you're worried about coronavirus, you can get advice about coronavirus and bronchitis from the British Lung Foundation.

    Symptoms of bronchitis

    The main symptom of acute bronchitis is a hacking cough, which may bring up clear, yellow-grey or greenish mucus (phlegm).

    Other symptoms are similar to those of the common cold or sinusitis, and may include:

    a sore throat a headache

    a runny or blocked nose

    aches and pains tiredness

    If you have acute bronchitis, your cough may last for several weeks after other symptoms have gone.

    You may also find that the continual coughing makes your chest and stomach muscles sore.

    Some people may have shortness of breath or wheezing as a result of inflamed airways.

    But this is more common with long-term (chronic) bronchitis.

    When to see a GP

    Most cases of acute bronchitis can be easily treated at home with rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and plenty of fluids.

    You only need to see a GP if your symptoms are severe or unusual.

    For example, see a GP if:

    your cough is severe or lasts longer than 3 weeks

    you have a high temperature for more than 3 days – this may be a sign of flu or a more serious condition, such as pneumonia

    you cough up mucus streaked with blood

    you have an underlying heart or lung condition, such as asthma, heart failure or emphysema

    you're becoming more breathless

    you have had repeated episodes of bronchitis

    A GP may need to rule out other lung infections, such as pneumonia, which has symptoms similar to those of bronchitis.

    If they think you may have pneumonia, you'll probably need a chest X-ray and a sample of mucus may be taken for testing.

    If a GP thinks you might have an underlying condition, they may also suggest that you have a lung function test.

    You'll be asked to take a deep breath and blow into a device called a spirometer, which measures the volume of air in your lungs.

    Decreased lung capacity can indicate an underlying health problem.

    Causes of bronchitis

    Viral and bacterial infections

    Bronchitis is usually caused by a virus. Less often, it's caused by a bacteria.

    In most cases, bronchitis is caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold or flu.

    The virus is contained in the millions of tiny droplets that come out of the nose and mouth when someone coughs or sneezes.

    These droplets typically spread about 1m. They hang suspended in the air for a while, then land on surfaces, where the virus can survive for up to 24 hours.

    Anyone who touches these surfaces can spread the virus further by touching something else.

    Find out more about how cold and flu germs spread

    Breathing in irritant substances

    Bronchitis can also be triggered by breathing in irritant substances, such as smog, chemicals in household products or tobacco smoke.

    Smoking is the main cause of chronic bronchitis. It can affect people who inhale secondhand smoke, as well as those who smoke themselves.

    People with chronic bronchitis often develop another smoking-related lung disease called emphysema, where the air sacs inside the lungs become damaged, causing shortness of breath.

    If you smoke, try to stop straight away as smoking aggravates bronchitis and increases your risk of developing emphysema.

    Stopping smoking while you have bronchitis can also be the perfect opportunity to quit altogether.

    Find out more about stop smoking treatments

    Occupational exposure

    You may also be at risk of chronic bronchitis and other types of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if you're often exposed to materials that can damage your lungs, such as:

    Source : www.nhs.uk

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