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    Nuclear Radiation Assignment and Quiz Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Compare and contrast the biological effects of high and low exposure to radiation. List ways in which low and high exposure differ., Recall rem = rad x Q Radiation weighting factor (Q): the ability to transfer energy to the body 1 for photons 1 for electrons 2 for protons 20 for alpha particles, fission fragments, and heavy ions 2 to 20 for neutrons, depending on the energy level Suppose two people are exposed to equal doses of radiation (equal number of rads) inside their bodies. Suppose that the first person is exposed to alpha radiation, while the second person is exposed to protons. How many times worse is the biological risk for the first person than the second as a result of radiation weighting?, Which descriptions apply to emitted radiation? Check all that apply. and more.

    Nuclear Radiation Assignment and Quiz

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    Compare and contrast the biological effects of high and low exposure to radiation. List ways in which low and high exposure differ.

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    Low exposure is less than 50 rem. It damages cells and then the body repairs the damage. High exposure is greater then 50 rem. It causes the death of cells, tissues, organs. It can cause cancers, Acute Radiation Syndrome, and death.

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    Recall rem = rad x Q

    Radiation weighting factor (Q): the ability to transfer energy to the body

    1 for photons 1 for electrons 2 for protons

    20 for alpha particles, fission fragments, and heavy ions

    2 to 20 for neutrons, depending on the energy level

    Suppose two people are exposed to equal doses of radiation (equal number of rads) inside their bodies. Suppose that the first person is exposed to alpha radiation, while the second person is exposed to protons. How many times worse is the biological risk for the first person than the second as a result of radiation weighting?

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    10

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    Terms in this set (14)

    Compare and contrast the biological effects of high and low exposure to radiation. List ways in which low and high exposure differ.

    Low exposure is less than 50 rem. It damages cells and then the body repairs the damage. High exposure is greater then 50 rem. It causes the death of cells, tissues, organs. It can cause cancers, Acute Radiation Syndrome, and death.

    Recall rem = rad x Q

    Radiation weighting factor (Q): the ability to transfer energy to the body

    1 for photons 1 for electrons 2 for protons

    20 for alpha particles, fission fragments, and heavy ions

    2 to 20 for neutrons, depending on the energy level

    Suppose two people are exposed to equal doses of radiation (equal number of rads) inside their bodies. Suppose that the first person is exposed to alpha radiation, while the second person is exposed to protons. How many times worse is the biological risk for the first person than the second as a result of radiation weighting?

    10

    Which descriptions apply to emitted radiation? Check all that apply.

    measurement in Ci/Bq

    the amount of radioactive materials released into the environment.

    number of disintegrations of radioactive atoms in a radioactive material over a period of time

    Describe the nature and variety of instruments used to detect radiation.

    a Geiger counter is a device used to measure radiation by detecting alpha or beta particles or gamma rays

    a scintillation counter is a device used to measure radiation by measuring quantities of light emitted from a sensor

    a film badge is a badge made of photographic film, which can be used to measure a worker's exposure to radiation

    a cloud chamber is a particle detector used to detect radiation in a sealed chamber

    Which type of radiation is the smallest in size?

    gamma radiation

    What is the difference between the units rem and rad?

    Rem is used to measure biological risk, and rad is used to measure absorbed radiation.

    A patient comes into the hospital because she is worried about possible exposure to radiation. The doctors determine that the patient has 60 rem of exposure. What is her risk of cancer?

    High because her exposure is greater than 50 rem.

    Which radiation detection device is the best to use for measuring the presence of radiation in large moving objects where constant monitoring is impossible?

    film badge

    A computed tomography (CT) scan fires radiation through the body to create an image. What type of radiation does a CT scan use?

    gamma radiation

    What form does the radiation that is used to treat cancer take?

    photons

    Which household item uses radiation in a beneficial way?

    smoke detectors

    Which career is most suited for a nuclear chemist?

    studying the production and use of radioactive sources

    Which type of radiation travels at the speed of light and penetrates matter easily?

    gamma rays

    Which is a biological effect of low exposure to radiation?

    DNA damage

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    21.6 Biological Effects of Radiation – Chemistry

    21.6 BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Describe the biological impact of ionizing radiation

    Define units for measuring radiation exposure

    Explain the operation of common tools for detecting radioactivity

    List common sources of radiation exposure in the US

    The increased use of radioisotopes has led to increased concerns over the effects of these materials on biological systems (such as humans). All radioactive nuclides emit high-energy particles or electromagnetic waves. When this radiation encounters living cells, it can cause heating, break chemical bonds, or ionize molecules. The most serious biological damage results when these radioactive emissions fragment or ionize molecules. For example, alpha and beta particles emitted from nuclear decay reactions possess much higher energies than ordinary chemical bond energies. When these particles strike and penetrate matter, they produce ions and molecular fragments that are extremely reactive. The damage this does to biomolecules in living organisms can cause serious malfunctions in normal cell processes, taxing the organism’s repair mechanisms and possibly causing illness or even death (Figure 1).

    Figure 1. Radiation can harm biological systems by damaging the DNA of cells. If this damage is not properly repaired, the cells may divide in an uncontrolled manner and cause cancer.

    IONIZING AND NONIONIZING RADIATION

    There is a large difference in the magnitude of the biological effects of nonionizing radiation (for example, light and microwaves) and ionizing radiation, emissions energetic enough to knock electrons out of molecules (for example, α and β particles, γ rays, X-rays, and high-energy ultraviolet radiation) (Figure 2).

    Figure 2. Lower frequency, lower-energy electromagnetic radiation is nonionizing, and higher frequency, higher-energy electromagnetic radiation is ionizing.

    Energy absorbed from nonionizing radiation speeds up the movement of atoms and molecules, which is equivalent to heating the sample. Although biological systems are sensitive to heat (as we might know from touching a hot stove or spending a day at the beach in the sun), a large amount of nonionizing radiation is necessary before dangerous levels are reached. Ionizing radiation, however, may cause much more severe damage by breaking bonds or removing electrons in biological molecules, disrupting their structure and function. The damage can also be done indirectly, by first ionizing H2O (the most abundant molecule in living organisms), which forms a H2O+ ion that reacts with water, forming a hydronium ion and a hydroxyl radical:

    Because the hydroxyl radical has an unpaired electron, it is highly reactive. (This is true of any substance with unpaired electrons, known as a free radical.) This hydroxyl radical can react with all kinds of biological molecules (DNA, proteins, enzymes, and so on), causing damage to the molecules and disrupting physiological processes. Examples of direct and indirect damage are shown in Figure 3.

    Figure 3. Ionizing radiation can (a) directly damage a biomolecule by ionizing it or breaking its bonds, or (b) create an H2O+ ion, which reacts with H2O to form a hydroxyl radical, which in turn reacts with the biomolecule, causing damage indirectly.

    BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIATION

    Radiation can harm either the whole body (somatic damage) or eggs and sperm (genetic damage). Its effects are more pronounced in cells that reproduce rapidly, such as the stomach lining, hair follicles, bone marrow, and embryos. This is why patients undergoing radiation therapy often feel nauseous or sick to their stomach, lose hair, have bone aches, and so on, and why particular care must be taken when undergoing radiation therapy during pregnancy.

    Different types of radiation have differing abilities to pass through material (Figure 4). A very thin barrier, such as a sheet or two of paper, or the top layer of skin cells, usually stops alpha particles. Because of this, alpha particle sources are usually not dangerous if outside the body, but are quite hazardous if ingested or inhaled (see the Chemistry in Everyday Life feature on Radon Exposure). Beta particles will pass through a hand, or a thin layer of material like paper or wood, but are stopped by a thin layer of metal. Gamma radiation is very penetrating and can pass through a thick layer of most materials. Some high-energy gamma radiation is able to pass through a few feet of concrete. Certain dense, high atomic number elements (such as lead) can effectively attenuate gamma radiation with thinner material and are used for shielding. The ability of various kinds of emissions to cause ionization varies greatly, and some particles have almost no tendency to produce ionization. Alpha particles have about twice the ionizing power of fast-moving neutrons, about 10 times that of β particles, and about 20 times that of γ rays and X-rays.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Radiation Health Effects

    View basic information about how radiation affects human health, including the concepts of acute and chronic exposure, internal and external sources of exposure and sensitive populations.

    Radiation Health Effects

    has sufficient energy to affect the atoms in living cells and thereby damage their genetic material (DNA). Fortunately, the cells in our bodies are extremely efficient at repairing this damage. However, if the damage is not repaired correctly, a cell may die or eventually become cancerous. Related information in Spanish (Información relacionada en español).

    Exposure to very high levels of radiation, such as being close to an atomic blast, can cause acute health effects such as skin burns and acute radiation syndrome (“radiation sickness"). It can also result in long-term health effects such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to low levels of radiation encountered in the environment does not cause immediate health effects, but is a minor contributor to our overall cancer risk.

    Visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for more information about possible health effects of radiation exposure and contamination.EXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE On this page:

    Acute radiation syndrome from large exposures

    Radiation exposure and cancer risk

    Limiting cancer risk from radiation in the environment

    Exposure pathways

    Sensitive populations

    Acute Radiation Syndrome from Large Exposures

    A very high level of radiation exposure delivered over a short period of time can cause symptoms such as nausea and vomiting within hours and can sometimes result in death over the following days or weeks. This is known as acute radiation syndrome, commonly known as “radiation sickness.”

    It takes a very high radiation exposure to cause acute radiation syndrome—more than 0.75  (75 in a short time span (minutes to hours). This level of radiation would be like getting the radiation from 18,000 chest x-rays distributed over your entire body in this short period. Acute radiation syndrome is rare, and comes from extreme events like a nuclear explosion or accidental handling or rupture of a highly radioactive source.

    View CDC Fact Sheet:  Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS).EXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    Learn about protecting yourself from radiation.

    Learn about radiation sources and doses.

    Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk

    Exposure to low-levels of radiation does not cause immediate health effects, but can cause a small increase in the of cancer over a lifetime. There are studies that keep track of groups of people who have been exposed to radiation, including atomic bomb survivors and radiation industry workers. These studies show that radiation exposure increases the chance of getting cancer, and the risk increases as the dose increases: the higher the dose, the greater the risk. Conversely, cancer risk from radiation exposure declines as the dose falls: the lower the dose, the lower the risk.

    Radiation doses are commonly expressed in millisieverts (international units) or  (U.S. units). A dose can be determined from a one-time radiation exposure, or from accumulated exposures over time. About 99 percent of individuals would not get cancer as a result of a one-time uniform whole-body exposure of 100 millisieverts (10 rem) or lower.1 At this dose, it would be extremely difficult to identify an excess in cancers caused by radiation when about 40 percent of men and women in the U.S. will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetime.

    Risks that are low for an individual could still result in unacceptable numbers of additional cancers in a large population over time. For example, in a population of one million people, an average one-percent increase in lifetime cancer risk for individuals could result in 10,000 additional cancers. The EPA sets regulatory limits and recommends emergency response guidelines well below 100 millisieverts (10 rem) to protect the U.S. population, including sensitive groups such as children, from increased cancer risks from accumulated radiation dose over a lifetime.

    Radiation Thermometer

    See radiation doses in perspective with the interactive Radiation Thermometer from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)EXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    Source: CDC

    Calculate your radiation dose.

    Learn about radiation sources and doses.

    Learn more about cancer risk in the U.S. at the National Cancer InstituteEXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE .

    Learn more about how EPA estimates cancer risk in, EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population, also known as the Blue Book.

    Limiting Cancer Risk from Radiation in the Environment

    EPA bases its regulatory limits and nonregulatory guidelines for public exposure to low level ionizing radiation on the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. The LNT model assumes that the risk of cancer due to a low-dose exposure is proportional to dose, with no threshold. In other words, cutting the dose in half cuts the risk in half.

    The use of the LNT model for radiation protection purposes has been repeatedly recommended by authoritative scientific advisory bodies, including the National Academy of SciencesEXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    and the National Council on Radiation Protection and MeasurementsEXIT

    EXIT EPA WEBSITE

    . There is evidence to support LNT from laboratory data and from studies of cancer in people exposed to radiation. 2,3,4,5

    Source : www.epa.gov

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