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    Hospitalization of Infants and Children Aged 0–4 Years with Laboratory

    This report describes COVID-19 hospitalization rates among infants and children aged 0-4 years, including during Omicron variant predominance.

    Hospitalization of Infants and Children Aged 0–4 Years with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 2020–February 2022

    Weekly / March 18, 2022 / 71(11);429–436

    MMWR

    Kristin J. Marks, PhD1,2; Michael Whitaker, MPH1; Nickolas T. Agathis, MD1,2; Onika Anglin, MPH1,3; Jennifer Milucky, MSPH1; Kadam Patel, MPH1,3; Huong Pham, MPH1; Pam Daily Kirley, MPH4; Breanna Kawasaki, MPH5; James Meek, MPH6; Evan J. Anderson, MD7,8,9; Andy Weigel, MSW10; Sue Kim, MPH11; Ruth Lynfield, MD12; Susan L. Ropp, PhD13; Nancy L. Spina, MPH14; Nancy M. Bennett, MD15; Eli Shiltz, MPH16; Melissa Sutton, MD17; H. Keipp Talbot, MD18; Andrea Price19; Christopher A. Taylor, PhD1; Fiona P. Havers, MD1; COVID-NET Surveillance Team (View author affiliations)

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    Summary

    What is already known about this topic?

    COVID-19 can cause severe illness in infants and children, including those aged 0–4 years who are not yet eligible for COVID-19 vaccination.

    What is added by this report?

    During Omicron variant predominance beginning in late December 2021, U.S. infants and children aged 0–4 years were hospitalized at approximately five times the rate of the previous peak during Delta variant predominance. Infants aged <6 months had the highest rates of hospitalization, but indicators of severity (e.g., respiratory support) did not differ by age group.

    What are the implications for public health practice?

    Important strategies to prevent COVID-19 among infants and young children include vaccination of currently eligible populations such as pregnant women, family members, and caregivers of infants and young children.

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    The B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been the predominant circulating variant in the United States since late December 2021.* Coinciding with increased Omicron circulation, COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates increased rapidly among infants and children aged 0–4 years, a group not yet eligible for vaccination (). Coronavirus Disease 19–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† data were analyzed to describe COVID-19–associated hospitalizations among U.S. infants and children aged 0–4 years since March 2020. During the period of Omicron predominance (December 19, 2021–February 19, 2022), weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates per 100,000 infants and children aged 0–4 years peaked at 14.5 (week ending January 8, 2022); this Omicron-predominant period peak was approximately five times that during the period of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominance (June 27–December 18, 2021, which peaked the week ending September 11, 2021).§ During Omicron predominance, 63% of hospitalized infants and children had no underlying medical conditions; infants aged <6 months accounted for 44% of hospitalizations, although no differences were observed in indicators of severity by age. Strategies to prevent COVID-19 among infants and young children are important and include vaccination among currently eligible populations () such as pregnant women (), family members, and caregivers of infants and young children ().

    COVID-NET conducts population-based surveillance for laboratory-confirmed COVID-19–associated hospitalizations in 99 counties across 14 U.S. states.¶ Among residents of a predefined surveillance catchment area, COVID-19–associated hospitalizations are defined as receipt of a positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction or rapid antigen detection test result during hospitalization or during the 14 days preceding admission. This analysis describes weekly hospitalization rates among infants and children aged 0–4 years during March 1, 2020–February 19, 2022, which includes the pre-Delta–, Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods; detailed clinical data were available through January 31, 2022. Unadjusted weekly COVID-19–associated hospitalization rates were calculated by dividing the total number of hospitalized patients by the population estimates within each age group for the counties included in the surveillance catchment area.** All rates are estimated per 100,000 infants and children aged 0–4 years. Rate ratios (RR) comparing Omicron- and Delta-predominant periods and 95% CIs were calculated. Three-week moving averages are presented for visualization purposes.

    Trained surveillance staff conducted medical chart abstractions for all pediatric COVID-NET patients using a standardized case report form during March 2020 through November 2021. Because of the large surge in hospitalizations during December 2021 and January 2022, some sites examined clinical data on a representative sample of hospitalized infants and children.†† Data regarding primary reason for hospital admission,§§ symptoms at admission,¶¶ underlying medical conditions, and indicators of severe disease (i.e., hospital length of stay, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, need for respiratory support,*** and in-hospital death) were collected (). Data on viral codetections (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], influenza, rhinovirus/enterovirus, and other viruses)††† were collected for infants and children who received additional testing. Monthly ICU admission rates were calculated. Proportions were compared between periods of pre-Delta predominance (March 1, 2020–June 26, 2021), Delta predominance (June 27–December 18, 2021), and Omicron predominance (December 19, 2021–January 31, 2022); a variant that accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates was considered predominant. For the period of Omicron predominance, proportions were compared by age (<6 months, 6–23 months, and 2–4 years). Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and chi-square tests were used to compare medians and proportions, respectively; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Percentages were weighted to account for the probability of selection for sampled cases and adjusted to account for nonresponse. Data were analyzed using SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute). This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.§§§

    Source : www.cdc.gov

    CDC reports fewer COVID

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 966,575 deaths from COVID-19 on Friday after it corrected the data earlier this week, which reduced the death tallies in all age-groups, including children.

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 966,575 deaths from COVID-19 on Friday after it corrected the data earlier this week, which reduced the death tallies in all age-groups, including children.

    The health agency, in a statement to Reuters, said it made adjustments to its COVID Data Tracker's mortality data on March 14 because its algorithm was accidentally counting deaths that were not COVID-19-related.

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    The adjustment resulted in removal of 72,277 deaths previously reported across 26 states, including 416 pediatric deaths, CDC said.

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    The reduction cut the CDC's estimate of deaths in children by 24% to 1,341 as of March 18.

    Children accounted for about 19% of all COVID-19 cases, but less than 0.26% of cases resulted in death, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, which summarizes state-based data.

    Americans have been polarized over the mitigation measures the CDC recommended for schools during the pandemic from urging schools to be remote, require masks and set up social distancing measures. It now advises that for most of the country, children should be in school and can be without masks.

    The number of U.S. children with COVID-19 rose sharply during the Omicron variant wave due to its increased transmissibility and low vaccination rates among children 5-11 who are eligible for the vaccine. Children ages 0-4 are not eligible for the vaccine in the United States.

    RELATED IMAGES

    A child arrives with her parent to receive the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine for children 5 to 11-years-old at London Middle School in Wheeling, Ill., Nov. 17, 2021. (AP Photo/Nam Y. Huh, File)

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    Source : www.ctvnews.ca

    CDC reports fewer COVID

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 966,575 deaths from COVID-19 on Friday after it corrected the data earlier this week, which reduced the death tallies in all age-groups, including children.

    March 18, 20228:40 PM UTC

    Last Updated 19 hours ago

    CDC reports fewer COVID-19 pediatric deaths after data correction

    Reuters 2 minute read

    Healthcare workers are seen at the Children's Hospital of Georgia in Augusta, Georgia, U.S., January 15, 2022. REUTERS/Hannah Beier

    March 18 (Reuters) - The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 966,575 deaths from COVID-19 on Friday after it corrected the data earlier this week, which reduced the death tallies in all age-groups, including children.

    The health agency, in a statement to Reuters, said it made adjustments to its COVID Data Tracker's mortality data on March 14 because its algorithm was accidentally counting deaths that were not COVID-19-related.

    The adjustment resulted in removal of 72,277 deaths previously reported across 26 states, including 416 pediatric deaths, CDC said.

    Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com

    The reduction cut the CDC's estimate of deaths in children by 24% to 1,341 as of March 18.

    Children accounted for about 19% of all COVID-19 cases, but less than 0.26% of cases resulted in death, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics, which summarizes state-based data.

    Americans have been polarized over the mitigation measures the CDC recommended for schools during the pandemic from urging schools to be remote, require masks and set up social distancing measures. It now advises that for most of the country, children should be in school and can be without masks.

    The number of U.S. children with COVID-19 rose sharply during the Omicron variant wave due to its increased transmissibility and low vaccination rates among children 5-11 who are eligible for the vaccine. Children ages 0-4 are not eligible for the vaccine in the United States.

    Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com

    Reporting by Mrinalika Roy in Bengaluru; Editing by Arun Koyyur

    Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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    Source : www.reuters.com

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