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    cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.

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    51cards Andy T. Biology

    Human Anatomy & Physiology

    The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries.

    T

    Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.

    F

    Anastomoses among coronary arterial branches provide collateral routes for blood delivery to the heart muscle.

    T

    Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that there is inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues.

    T

    Tissues damaged by myocardial infarction are replaced by connective tissue.

    T

    The left side of the heart pumps the same volume of blood as the right.

    T

    Chronic release of excess thyroxine can cause a sustained increase in heart rate and a weakened heart.

    T

    Arterial blood supply to heart muscle is continuous whether the heart is in systole or diastole.

    F

    Trabeculae carneae are found in the ventricles and never the atria.

    T

    The "lub" sounds of the heart are valuable in diagnosis because they provide information about the function of the heart's pulmonary and aortic valves.

    F

    Autonomic regulation of heart rate is via two reflex centers found in the pons.

    F

    The papillary muscles contract after the other ventricular muscles so that they can take up the slack on the chordae tendineae before the full force of ventricular contractions sends blood against the AV valve flaps.

    F

    An ECG provides direct information about valve function.

    F

    As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic valve.

    T

    Proxysmal atrial tachycardia is characterized by bursts of atrial contractions with little pause between them.

    T

    Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events? A) opening and closing of the heart valves B) friction of blood against the chamber walls C) excitation of the SA node D) closure of the heart valves

    D

    Which of the events below does not occur when the semilunar valves are open? A) Ventricles are in systole. B) Ventricles are in diastole. C) Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta. D) AV valves are closed.

    B

    Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________. A) a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output B) no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate C) a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output D) no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration

    C

    The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________. A) accommodate a greater volume of blood B) expand the thoracic cage during diastole C) pump blood through a smaller valve D) pump blood with greater pressure

    D

    Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block. A) AV bundle B) AV valves C) AV node D) SA node

    C

    The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________. A) ventricular repolarization B) ventricular depolarization C) atrial depolarization D) atrial repolarization

    C

    Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________. A) left atrium B) right ventricle C) right atrium D) left ventricle

    A

    Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________. A) pectinate muscles B) trabeculae carneae C) venae cavae D) papillary muscles

    D

    The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by thetransient spasm of coronary arteries is ________. A) angina pectoris B) myocardial infarct C) pericarditis D) ischemia

    A

    To auscultate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethoscope in the ________. A) fifth intercostal space inferior to the left nipple B) second intercostal space to the right of the sternum C) second intercostal space to the left of the sternum D) fifth right intercostal space

    B

    The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________. A) fossa ovalis B) coronary sinus C) coronary arteries D) coronary veins

    C

    The fact that the left ventricle of the heart is thicker than the right ventricle reveals that it ________. A) pumps a greater volume of blood B) sends blood through a smaller valve C) expands the thoracic cage D) pumps blood against a greater resistance

    D

    Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate? A) body temperature B) gender C) skin color D) age

    C

    Which of the following is not an age-related change affecting the heart? A) thinning of the valve flaps B) decline in cardiac reserve C) atherosclerosis D) fibrosis of cardiac muscle

    A

    If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________. A) an inadequate supply of lactic acid B) decreased delivery of oxygen C) a lack of nutrients to feed into metabolic pathways D) a decrease in the number of available mitochondria for energy production

    B

    If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________. A) it would be less than 12 ms B) tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

    B

    Norepinephrine acts on the heart by ________. A) decreasing heart contractility B) blocking the action of calcium C) causing threshold to be reached more quickly D) causing a decrease in stroke volume

    Source : www.chegg.com

    Heart & Blood vessels (2) Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary veins., Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle., Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that there is inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues. and more.

    Heart & Blood vessels (2)

    The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary veins.

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    Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.

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    Terms in this set (60)

    The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary veins.

    false

    Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.

    false

    Congestive heart failure means that the pumping efficiency of the heart is depressed so that there is inadequate delivery of blood to body tissues.

    true

    Tissues damaged by myocardial infarction are replaced by connective tissue.

    true

    The left side of the heart pumps the same volume of blood as the right.

    true

    The mitral valve has chordae but the tricuspid valve does not.

    false

    An ECG provides direct information about valve function.

    false

    The bicuspid valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

    true

    Chordae tendineae prevent the eversion of AV valves.

    true

    Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?

    closure of the heart valves

    Cardiac reserve ________.

    can be improved by regular exercise

    There is a semilunar valve between the:

    right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.

    The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.

    pump blood with greater pressure

    The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.

    atrial depolarization

    Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the ________.

    left atrium

    Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ________.

    papillary muscles

    The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.

    angina pectoris

    Which of the following factors does not influence heart rate?

    skin color

    If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood supply, damage would primarily result from ________.

    decreased delivery of oxygen

    Cardiac muscle cells are like skeletal muscle cells in that they ________.

    have I and A bands

    The pericardial cavity ________.

    contains a lubricating fluid called serous fluid

    If the length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells was the same as it is for skeletal muscle cells ________.

    tetanic contractions might occur, which would stop the heart's pumping action

    Foramen ovale ________.

    connects the two atria in the fetal heart

    The stroke volume for a normal resting heart is ________ ml/beat.

    70

    Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?

    pulmonary trunk

    The layer of the heart responsible for its pumping action is the:

    myocardium

    Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?

    AV valve

    The tricuspid valve is closed ________.

    when the ventricle is in systole

    When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.

    noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

    Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.

    has gap junctions (intercalated discs)

    The myocardium is made of:

    cardiac muscle

    The atrioventricular valves close when the:

    ventricles contract

    The initiation of the heart beat is the responsibility of the:

    SA node

    All deoxygenated blood returning from the systemic circulation flows into the:

    right atrium

    The adjustment of blood flow to each tissue in proportion to its requirements at any point in time is termed autoregulation.

    true

    The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima.

    false

    Arteries are defined as those vessels that carry oxygenated blood.

    false

    Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction.

    false

    The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues.

    true

    An obstruction in the superior vena cava would decrease the flow of blood from the head and neck to the heart.

    true

    The walls of arteries are thicker than veins.

    true

    All tissues contain capillaries.

    false

    An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance.

    true

    Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?

    emotional state

    The function of baroreceptors is to monitor changes in:

    blood pressure

    Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

    nitric acid

    Which statement best describes arteries?

    All carry blood away from the heart.

    Baroreceptors are located in the:

    walls of the aorta and carotid arteries

    Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.

    capillaries

    The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ________.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Physiology, Cardiac Muscle

    There are three types of muscles in vertebrates; cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle. The cardiac muscle is synonymous in the physiology of contraction, as is the skeletal muscle but with certain important differences. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the cardiac muscle and its physiology. Cardiac muscle is a network of involuntary and striated tubular cardiomyocytes or cardiac muscle cells. These cardiomyocytes are joined end-to-end by a structure known as intercalated discs. Each myocyte contains a single nucleus and is surrounded by a cell membrane known as the sarcolemma. These heart cells can be divided into two groups: muscle cells and pacemaker cells, allowing the heart to have contractile and electrical components.

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    StatPearls [Internet].

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    Physiology, Cardiac Muscle

    Rashelle Ripa; Tom George; Yasar Sattar.

    Author Information

    Last Update: June 20, 2021.

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    Introduction

    There are three types of muscles in vertebrates; cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle. The cardiac muscle is synonymous in the physiology of contraction, as is the skeletal muscle but with certain important differences. In this chapter, we will be reviewing the cardiac muscle and its physiology. Cardiac muscle is a network of involuntary and striated tubular cardiomyocytes or cardiac muscle cells. These cardiomyocytes are joined end-to-end by a structure known as intercalated discs. Each myocyte contains a single nucleus and is surrounded by a cell membrane known as the sarcolemma. These heart cells can be divided into two groups: muscle cells and pacemaker cells, allowing the heart to have contractile and electrical components.

    Every individual heart cell communicates via gap junctions, which permit depolarization to spread from one cell to the next, allowing a synchronous wave of depolarization to occur over the entire heart.[1] The close-knit interaction of electrical and contractile forces propel blood to the entire body allowing for continual oxygenation and proper blood supply to all tissues.

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    Cellular

    At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle looks like a wall of a house. The wall is made up of bricks of cardiomyocytes, and the mortar surrounding the bricks is called the extracellular matrix. The fibroblasts are the supporting cells that produce the extracellular matrix. The cardiac muscle cells are interconnected through specialed intercalated discs. The cardiac muscle is known for its specialized cells for conducting electrical signals through the heart. They consist of blood vessels to bring nutrients and remove waste products.

    Cardiac tissue is only found in the heart and nowhere else in the body. It is an involuntary, striated muscle that is highly coordinated with a single nucleus, many mitochondria, and an extensive cardiac capillary network. Myocytes are the individual muscle cells that are organized into sarcomeres and interconnected via intercalated discs. The interconnections allow the cardiac myofibrils to contract together in a fluid synchronized fashion to enable the heart to work as a pump. The primary function of the left ventricle muscle is to pump blood which physiologically is dependent upon an increasing concentration of calcium and sodium within the cytosol of the muscle triggering muscle contraction. The basic unit of contraction in the myocyte is the sarcomere, which is bound to the T-tubule system on both ends. The T-tubules are part of the sarcolemma where L-type calcium channels are contained and become more numerous around the cell's sarcoplasmic reticulum. Its calcium release channels are known as ryanodine receptors.[2]

    The amount of calcium transiently determines the contractility of the heart. The heart contracts as a unit to carry out its role of supplying oxygen and nutrients throughout the body while simultaneously delivering waste products to organs for filtration and excretion. When the left ventricle faces a physiological or pathological increase in cardiac demand, such as increases in preload or afterload, it changes to better meet these new needs. These changes can include cardiac remodeling via induvial myocyte hypertrophy or fibroblast proliferation leading to fibrosis, vascularization, or even cell death.[3]

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    Development

    The development of the heart occurs in various stages. During embryogenesis, the formation of the primitive streak follows the invagination of epiblast cells, indicating the start of gastrulation. Gastrulation divides the embryonic plate, which originally contained two layers between the yolk sac and amniotic cavity, into three germ layers; ecto-, meso-, and endoderm. The mesoderm is situated between the ectoderm and endoderm layers, and during development, spreads laterally and cranially, forming different structures, particularly the heart.[2]

    The myocardium begins developing during the second week of gestation in the dorsal mesocardium. After three weeks of fertilization, the primitive heart begins to develop as a straight tube changing its configuration as time proceeds. This entails folding of the tube, giving rise to bulges that become analogous to the adult heart; truncus arteriosus develops into the aorta and pulmonary artery, bulbus cordis develops into smooth left and right ventricles, primitive ventricle into trabeculated LV/RV, primitive atrium into trabeculated atria and the sinus venosus which develops into the right atrium (sinus venarum) and coronary sinus.[3]

    Approximately around the fourth week of development, the heart goes through a process called cardiac looping, establishing the left-sided orientation of the heart with the help of cilia and dynein, which are motile structures and proteins, respectively.[4] These factors need to function properly to ensure the normal left-sided orientation of the heart; otherwise, it can lead to dextrocardia, which places the heart on the right side of the chest. This is typically seen in Kartagener Syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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