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    Body mass index - BMI

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    BMI, formerly called the Quetelet index, is a measure for indicating nutritional status in adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms divided by the square of the person’s height in metres (kg/m2). For example, an adult who weighs 70 kg and whose height is 1.75 m will have a BMI of 22.9.

    70 (kg)/1.752 (m2) = 22.9 BMI

    For adults over 20 years old, BMI falls into one of the following categories.

    Table 1. Nutritional status

    BMI Nutritional status

    Below 18.5 Underweight 18.5–24.9 Normal weight 25.0–29.9 Pre-obesity 30.0–34.9 Obesity class I 35.0–39.9 Obesity class II Above 40 Obesity class III

    The BMI ranges are based on the effect excessive body fat has on disease and death and are reasonably well related to adiposity. BMI was developed as a risk indicator of disease; as BMI increases, so does the risk for some diseases. Some common conditions related to overweight and obesity include: premature death, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, osteoarthritis, some cancers and diabetes.

    BMI is also recommended for use in children and adolescents. In children, BMI is calculated as for adults and then compared with z-scores or percentiles. During childhood and adolescence the ratio between weight and height varies with sex and age, so the cut-off values that determine the nutritional status of those aged 0–19 years are gender- and age-specific. The cut-off points of the 2006 BMI-for-age reference for children aged 0–5 years for the diagnosis of overweight and obesity were set as the 97th and the 99th percentile, respectively. For those aged 5–19 years, overweight is defined as a BMI-for-age value over +1 SD and obesity as a BMI-for-age value over +2 SD.

    History

    BMI is very easy to measure and calculate and is therefore the most commonly used tool to correlate risk of health problems with the weight at population level. It was developed by Adolphe Quetelet during the 19th century. During the 1970s and based especially on the data and report from the Seven Countries study, researchers noticed that BMI appeared to be a good proxy for adiposity and overweight related problems.

    Like any other measure it is not perfect because it is only dependant on height and weight and it does not take into consideration different levels of adiposity based on age, physical activity levels and sex. For this reason it is expected that it overestimates adiposity in some cases and underestimates it in others.

    Other measures, such as waist circumference (WC), can complement BMI estimates. Association between WC and health risks is not an easy task and should be done scientifically using proper techniques.

    Source : www.euro.who.int

    Health chapter 11 Flashcards

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    Health chapter 11

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    1) ____ is a measure of body weight relative to height.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    BMI- body mass index

    Click again to see term 👆

    2) Adults who have an excess of body fat may be considered ____.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    Obese

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/23 Created by Lillygardner1

    Terms in this set (23)

    1) ____ is a measure of body weight relative to height.

    BMI- body mass index

    2) Adults who have an excess of body fat may be considered ____.

    Obese

    3) People who are ____ have a BMI that is lower than the healthy range.

    Underweight

    4) measuring the thickness of skin folds at different points on the body is a way to determine your

    A. Body mass index-BMI

    5) which of the following is not a health risk associated with being overweight?

    A. Hypertension (high blood pressure)

    6) a safe, reasonable rate of weight loss is

    C. 1/2 to 1 pound per week

    7) how is your weight related to your energy balance?

    for energy balance, it converts the food you eat into fuel. the calories you eat that has fat will turn into fat. and then weighing too much is having excess of body fat.

    8) list three healthfulsteps you could take if you wanted to gain weight.

    eat nutritious snacks, get regular physical activity, choose higher- calorie, nutrient-rich foods, and select foods from the five major food groups that are higher in calories.

    9) what is the difference between being overweight and obese?

    overweight, heavier than the standard weight range for your height. obese, having an excess of body fat.

    10) why is physical activity important for all teens, regardless of weight?

    it helps relieve stress, it promotes a normal appetite response, it increases self-esteem, which helps you keep your plan on track, and it helps you feel more energetic.

    11) a repeated pattern of losing and regaining body weight is called (binge eating).

    weight cycling

    12) (fad diets) are extreme, harmful eating behaviors that can cause serious illness or even death.

    eating disoreders

    13) (anorexia nervous) is an eating disorder in which people overeat compulsively.

    binge eating disorder

    14) which of the following might cause teens to develop a negative body image?

    b. being picked on at school because of the way you look.

    15) teens who think they need to lose weight should

    d, consult a doctor

    16) which of the following is not a behavior associated with anorexia nervous?

    c. eating a large amount of food in single sitting

    17) the first step in treating bulimia nervous is to

    The goal is to break the cycle of binging and purging . Behavioral therapy can sometimes help with this goal.

    18) why are fad diets generally not safe or reliable ways to lose weight?

    Plans that promise ultra-fast weight loss (more than 2 pounds a week) are likely to be unsafe or ineffective. Plans that promise you can lose weight without boosting your physical activity also are likely to be unsafe or ineffective.

    What makes very low calorie diets dangerous for teens?

    It restricts you too get the fuel you need for energy, low calorie diets should only be under the supervision of a health care professional.

    20) identify three signs that distinguish a fad diet from a legitimate weight loss plan.

    Any plan that does not follow the mypyramind guidelines may deprive your body of nutrients.

    21) what are three risks associated with using diet pills?

    They can be addictive, cause drowsiness, anxiety, and a racing heart

    22) how are the eating disorders anorexia and bulimia similar? How are they different?

    Similar because they want to lose the weight gain. Different because anorexia is starving themselves because they don't want weight gain. Bulimia is when you eat and then vomit in attempt to not gain anymore weight.

    23) how are bulimia and binge eating disorder similar? How are they different?

    They are similar because they are both related to overeating. Different because bulimia you vomit up all the food and binge eating is you eat too much and become overweight.

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    Body mass index

    Body mass index

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    Body mass index (BMI)

    Chart showing body mass index (BMI) for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. Colours indicate BMI categories defined by the World Health Organization; , , , , and .

    Synonyms Quetelet index

    MeSH D015992 MedlinePlus 007196 LOINC 39156-5 Part of a series on Human body weight show General concepts show Medical concepts show Measurements show Related conditions show

    Obesity-associated morbidity

    show

    Management of obesity

    show Social aspects vte

    Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.

    The BMI may be determined using a table[a] or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement (converted to metric units for the calculation).[b]

    The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as , , , or based on tissue mass (muscle, fat, and bone) and height. Major adult BMI classifications are underweight (under 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 to 24.9), overweight (25 to 29.9), and obese (30 or more).[1] When used to predict an individual's health, rather than as a statistical measurement for groups, the BMI has limitations that can make it less useful than some of the alternatives, especially when applied to individuals with abdominal obesity, short stature, or unusually high muscle mass.

    BMIs under 20 and over 25 have been associated with higher all-causes mortality, with the risk increasing with distance from the 20–25 range.[2]

    Contents

    1 History 2 Categories

    2.1 Children (aged 2 to 20)

    2.2 International variations

    2.2.1 Hong Kong 2.2.2 Japan 2.2.3 Singapore 2.2.4 United States

    3 Consequences of elevated level in adults

    4 Applications 4.1 Public health

    4.2 Clinical practice

    4.3 Legislation

    5 Relationship to health

    6 Limitations 6.1 Scaling

    6.2 Physical characteristics

    6.3 Proposed new BMI

    6.4 Muscle versus fat

    6.5 Variation in definitions of categories

    7 Alternatives 7.1 BMI prime

    7.2 Waist circumference

    7.3 Surface-based body shape index

    7.4 Modified body mass index

    8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

    History[edit]

    Obesity and BMI

    Adolphe Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician, and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between 1830 and 1850 as he developed what he called "social physics".[3] The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the by Ancel Keys and others. In this paper, Keys argued that what he termed the BMI was "if not fully satisfactory, at least as good as any other relative weight index as an indicator of relative obesity".[4][5][6]

    The interest in an index that measures body fat came with observed increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies. Keys explicitly judged BMI as appropriate for studies and inappropriate for individual evaluation. Nevertheless, due to its simplicity, it has come to be widely used for preliminary diagnoses.[7] Additional metrics, such as waist circumference, can be more useful.[8]

    The BMI is expressed in kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. If pounds and inches are used, a conversion factor of 703 (kg/m2)/(lb/in2) is applied. When the term BMI is used informally, the units are usually omitted.

    {\displaystyle \mathrm {BMI} ={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{kg}}}{{{\text{height}}_{\text{m}}}^{2}}}={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{lb}}}{{{\text{height}}_{\text{in}}}^{2}}}\times 703}

    BMI provides a simple numeric measure of a person's or , allowing health professionals to discuss weight problems more objectively with their patients. BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition.[9] For such individuals, the BMI value recommendations as of 2014 are as follows: 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2 may indicate optimal weight, lower than 18.5 may indicate underweight, 25 to 29.9 may indicate overweight, and 30 or more may indicate obese.[7][8] Lean male athletes often have a high muscle-to-fat ratio and therefore a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body-fat percentage.[8]

    Categories[edit]

    A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal for a person's height. The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat (adipose tissue) although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly (see discussion below and overweight).[10]

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

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