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    Defensive Driving

    Learn what defensive driving is and how it can help you on the road.

    What is Defensive Driving?

    Defensive Driving is essentially driving in a manner that utilizes safe driving strategies to enables motorists to address identified hazards in a predictable manner. These strategies go well beyond instruction on basic traffic laws and procedures.

    With defensive driving classes, students learn to improve their driving skills by reducing their driving risks by anticipating situations and making safe well-informed decisions. Such decisions are implemented based on road and environmental conditions present when completing a safe driving maneuver.

    Benefits of Defensive Driving

    The benefits of taking a defensive driving class vary with each state, but often include a reduction of points on your driver's license following a ticket and the assurance that insurance rates will not increase. In some states, taking a defensive driving course can mean a reduction of up to 10% in your insurance rates for a period of three to five years.

    Just as the benefits of defensive driving classes vary with each state, so do the requirements. While most basic defensive driving classes are four hours long, some can be as long as six or eight hours.

    In some states, students have the option to take defensive driving courses online or by watching a video tape or DVD, while other states only allow students to take defensive driving in a classroom setting.

    What's Included in a Basic Defensive Driving Course

    The contents of a defensive driving course are regulated by each state and are designed to train you based on the laws of your state. However, most defensive driving classes contain similar information.

    The sections below provide a basic outline of the information that is typically covered in defensive driving courses.

    Traffic Crashes

    Losses from traffic crashes have both social and personal impacts. Approximately 41,000 die annually as a result of traffic collisions, with an additional 3,236,000 injuries. About 38% of all fatal car crashes are alcohol related with another 30% attributed to speeding.

    The causes of these crashes, emotional impact and cost in dollars spent on car crashes are typically covered in defensive driving courses. The goal of good defensive driving is to reduce the risk of these accidents by properly educating students to exercise caution and good judgment while driving.

    Psychological Factors

    On the roadways, drivers have to deal with several factors that can affect their driving. Though some of them are beyond the control of the driver, psychological factors can be controlled by the driver if he knows what to look for and how to handle it.

    Defensive driving courses tend to focus on how drivers can overcome negative psychological factors such as unneeded stress, fatigue, emotional distress and road rage. They also offer instructions for developing a positive attitude behind the wheel and increasing your focus on the driving task.

    Human Factors — DUI

    Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol continues to impact thousands of American drivers each year. While the specific effect of each drug on your body takes place in differing stages, the effect of drivers operating a vehicle while under the influence is disastrous.

    A very common component of all defensive driving courses is education about the role that drugs and alcohol play on America's roadways. Topics tend to include the state's limits as to blood-alcohol level, how your judgment, inhibitions, motor skills and senses are affected by drugs and alcohol and the consequences of being found guilty of driving under the influence.

    The Dynamics of a Crash

    Vehicle crashes are almost always a preventable result of a series of events. The combination of speed, place of impact and size of object being impacted can determine the severity of the crash. In every accident, however, the act of one vehicle hitting another vehicle or other object is not the only collision that can occur.

    The concept of the second collision, in which the driver and other passengers collides with the windshield, seat or other object within the car when not wearing a seat belt can be just as dangerous as the initial collision.

    Defensive driving courses address the issue of vehicle crashes and second collisions by listing the elements of a crash and illustrating how the forces of impact can be avoided or limited.

    Safety Equipment

    Approximately half of all deaths that are result of an automobile crash could have been avoided if the victim were wearing a safety belt properly. Of course safety belts are only the most commonly thought of vehicle safety equipment. Items such as air bags, child safety seats and head rests all serve to protect drivers and passengers and reduce the risk of injury or death in the event of a crash.

    Defensive driving courses offer tips on how to use these devices properly and ensure your safety when traveling the roadways.

    Crash Prevention Techniques

    The key to any good defensive driving strategy is knowing how to avoid traffic crashes and recognize potential hazards before it's too late. That's why defensive driving courses tend to present a lot of information on crash prevention techniques.

    In a typical defensive driving course, students learn crucial crash prevention techniques that include:

    Scanning the roadway and adapting to surroundings

    Source : www.safemotorist.com

    Risk Assessment : OSH Answers

    What is a risk assessment? Why is risk assessment important? What is the goal of risk assessment?

    Risk Assessment

    Risk Assessment What is a risk assessment?

    Risk assessment is a term used to describe the overall process or method where you:

    Identify hazards and risk factors that have the potential to cause harm (hazard identification).

    Analyze and evaluate the risk associated with that hazard (risk analysis, and risk evaluation).

    Determine appropriate ways to eliminate the hazard, or control the risk when the hazard cannot be eliminated (risk control).

    A risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc. that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you analyze and evaluate how likely and severe the risk is. When this determination is made, you can next, decide what measures should be in place to effectively eliminate or control the harm from happening.

    The CSA Standard Z1002 "Occupational health and safety - Hazard identification and elimination and risk assessment and control" uses the following terms:

    Risk assessment – the overall process of hazard identification, risk analysis, and risk evaluation.Hazard identification – the process of finding, listing, and characterizing hazards.Risk analysis – a process for comprehending the nature of hazards and determining the level of risk.Notes:(1) Risk analysis provides a basis for risk evaluation and decisions about risk control.(2) Information can include current and historical data, theoretical analysis, informed opinions, and the concerns of stakeholders.(3) Risk analysis includes risk estimation.Risk evaluation – the process of comparing an estimated risk against given risk criteria to determine the significance of the risk.Risk control – actions implementing risk evaluation decisions.Note: Risk control can involve monitoring, re-evaluation, and compliance with decisions.

    For definitions and more information about what hazards and risks are, please see the OSH Answers document Hazard and Risk.

    Why is risk assessment important?

    Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of an occupational health and safety management plan. They help to:

    Create awareness of hazards and risk.

    Identify who may be at risk (e.g., employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public, etc.).

    Determine whether a control program is required for a particular hazard.

    Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done.

    Prevent injuries or illnesses, especially when done at the design or planning stage.

    Prioritize hazards and control measures.

    Meet legal requirements where applicable.

    What is the goal of risk assessment?

    The aim of the risk assessment process is to evaluate hazards, then remove that hazard or minimize the level of its risk by adding control measures, as necessary. By doing so, you have created a safer and healthier workplace.

    The goal is to try to answer the following questions:

    What can happen and under what circumstances?

    What are the possible consequences?

    How likely are the possible consequences to occur?

    Is the risk controlled effectively, or is further action required?

    When should a risk assessment be done?

    There may be many reasons a risk assessment is needed, including:

    Before new processes or activities are introduced.

    Before changes are introduced to existing processes or activities, including when products, machinery, tools, equipment change or new information concerning harm becomes available.

    When hazards are identified.

    How do you plan for a risk assessment?

    In general, determine:

    What the scope of your risk assessment will be (e.g., be specific about what you are assessing such as the lifetime of the product, the physical area where the work activity takes place, or the types of hazards).

    The resources needed (e.g., train a team of individuals to carry out the assessment, the types of information sources, etc.).

    What type of risk analysis measures will be used (e.g., how exact the scale or parameters need to be in order to provide the most relevant evaluation).

    Who are the stakeholders involved (e.g., manager, supervisors, workers, worker representatives, suppliers, etc.).

    What relevant laws, regulations, codes, or standards may apply in your jurisdiction, as well as organizational policies and procedures.

    How is a risk assessment done?

    Assessments should be done by a competent person or team of individuals who have a good working knowledge of the situation being studied. Include either on the team or as sources of information, the supervisors and workers who work with the process under review as these individuals are the most familiar with the operation.

    In general, to do an assessment, you should:

    Identify hazards.

    Determine the likelihood of harm, such as an injury or illness occurring, and its severity.

    Consider normal operational situations as well as non-standard events such as maintenance, shutdowns, power outages, emergencies, extreme weather, etc.

    Review all available health and safety information about the hazard such as Safety Data Sheet (SDS), manufacturers literature, information from reputable organizations, results of testing, workplace inspection reports, records of workplace incidents (accidents), including information about the type and frequency of the occurrence, illnesses, injuries, near misses, etc.

    Source : www.ccohs.ca

    Drivers Ed, Standard 4 Flashcards

    Start studying Drivers Ed, Standard 4. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Drivers Ed, Standard 4

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    Potential that a chosen action may lead to an undesirable outcome

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    What is RISK?

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    Risk Acceptance

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    Being aware there are hazards and dangers with driving and knowing there are consequences to decisions is known as....

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    1/76 Created by nina_w23

    Terms in this set (76)

    Potential that a chosen action may lead to an undesirable outcome

    What is RISK? Risk Acceptance

    Being aware there are hazards and dangers with driving and knowing there are consequences to decisions is known as....

    Risk Compensation

    Recognizing hazards and dangers with driving and using appropriate measures to avoid them is known as....

    1) Aggressive Driving

    2) Not using seatbelt

    3) Speeding

    Check the THREE DRIVER BEHAVIORS that increase risk:

    1) Distraction 2) Anger 3) Drowsiness

    Check the THREE DRIVER STATE OF MIND that increase risk:

    1) Sharp Curves 2) Left Turns 3) Bikes

    Check the THREE DRIVER CONDITIONS that increase risk:

    Identify, prepare, consider, consequences

    What abilities must drivers have to assess RISK?


    What is the number one cause of crashes in both the state of Virginia and the United States?

    Change speed, Alter position or direction, Communicate

    How can you reduce driving risks?

    Center of gravity

    What is the point where the mass of the vehicle is concentrated and balanced?

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