Guys, does anyone know the answer?
get before hoop skirts, women who wanted their gowns to feature large skirts wore many heavy layers of a material called crinoline, which was made from thread and what other material? from EN Bilgi.
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"Crin" redirects here. For other uses, see Crin (disambiguation).
Princess Dagmar of Denmark wearing a crinoline in the 1860s
Cage crinoline underskirt, 1860s, ModeMuseum, Antwerp
A crinoline /ˈkrɪn.əl.ɪn/ is a stiff or structured petticoat designed to hold out a woman's skirt, popular at various times since the mid-19th century. Originally, crinoline described a stiff fabric made of horsehair ("crin") and cotton or linen which was used to make underskirts and as a dress lining. The term crin or crinoline continues to be applied to a nylon stiffening tape used for interfacing and lining hemlines in the 21st century.
By the 1850s the term crinoline was more usually applied to the fashionable silhouette provided by horsehair petticoats, and to the hoop skirts that replaced them in the mid-1850s. In form and function these hoop skirts were similar to the 16th- and 17th-century farthingale and to 18th-century panniers, in that they too enabled skirts to spread even wider and more fully.
The steel-hooped cage crinoline, first patented in April 1856 by R.C. Milliet in Paris, and by their agent in Britain a few months later, became extremely popular. Steel cage crinolines were mass-produced in huge quantity, with factories across the Western world producing tens of thousands in a year. Alternative materials, such as whalebone, cane, gutta-percha and even inflatable caoutchouc (natural rubber) were all used for hoops, although steel was the most popular. At its widest point, the crinoline could reach a circumference of up to six yards, although by the late 1860s, crinolines were beginning to reduce in size. By the early 1870s, the smaller crinolette and the bustle had largely replaced the crinoline.
Crinolines were worn by women of every social standing and class across the Western world, from royalty to factory workers. This led to widespread media scrutiny and criticism, particularly in satirical magazines such as . They were also hazardous if worn without due care. Thousands of women died in the mid-19th century as a result of their hooped skirts catching fire. Alongside fire, other hazards included the hoops being caught in machinery, carriage wheels, gusts of wind, or other obstacles.
The crinoline silhouette was revived several times in the 20th century, particularly in the late 1940s as a result of Christian Dior's "New Look" of 1947. The flounced nylon and net petticoats worn in the 1950s and 1960s to poof out skirts also became known as crinolines even when there were no hoops in their construction. In the mid-1980s Vivienne Westwood designed the mini-crini, a mini-length crinoline which was highly influential on 1980s fashion. Late 20th and early 21st century designers such as John Galliano and Alexander McQueen have become famous for their updated crinoline designs. Since the 1980s and well into the 21st century the crinoline has remained a popular option for formal evening dresses, wedding dresses, and ball gowns.
1 Etymology 2 Pre-1850 3 Late 19th century 3.1 1850s–60s
3.2 Crinolettes and 1880s revival
3.3 Critical response
3.3.1 Hazards 4 20th century 5 21st century 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 Further reading 9 External links
The name is often described as a combination of the Latin word ("hair") and/or the French word ("horsehair"); with the Latin word ("thread" or "flax," which was used to make linen), describing the materials used in the original textile.
In the 21st century, the term crin is still used to describe a type of woven nylon flat braid, available in various widths and used for stiffening and providing bulk-free body to hemlines, serving the same purpose as the original crin/crinoline. Crin tape/trim is typically transparent, though it also comes in black, white and cream colors. It is also described as horsehair braid or crinoline tape.
Horsehair crinoline, 1840s (MET)
Understanding Underwear: The Victorian Crinoline
Understanding Underwear: The Victorian Crinoline
fashion historyVictorian Fashion
A fascinating under-garment, revealed
"Le Salon", fashion plate from "Moniteur les Modes Parisienne" showing three women in a furnished interior wearing large crinoline skirts, two in mantles. Unsigned, Paris, dated 1859. Collection Victoria and Albert Museum, CC-BY-SA.The steel-hooped cage crinolines, first patented in April 1856 by R.C. Milliet in Paris, and by their agent in Britain a few months later, became extremely popular across the Western world, where they were worn by women of every social standing and class.
Originally the crinoline, a stiff fabric made of horsehair and cotton or linen, was used to make underskirts and as a dress lining. The stiffened or structured petticoat was designed to hold out the woman’s skirt and by the 1850s, the ladies wore it up in order the widen skirts to achieve the illusion of a tiny waist.
By then, the term crinoline was more usually applied to the fashionable silhouette provided by horsehair petticoats, and to the hoop skirts that replaced them. In form and function these hoop skirts enabled skirts to spread even wider and more fully.
Crinoline in cotton and metal, 1860-1870. Collection MoMu - ModeMuseum Provincie Antwerpen, all rights reserved
At its widest point, the crinolines could reach a circumference of up to six yards. Their features, and their width, made the crinolines dangerous if not worn without due care and this widespread media scrutiny and criticism. Many caricatures and illustrations refigured fashionable ladies wearing impossible and exaggerated version of the cage in ridiculous scenes, but this however reflected a true and less funny reality. Thousands of women died in the middle 19th century as a result of their hooped skirts catching. In addition to fire, their hazards included the hoops being caught in machinery, carriage wheels, gusts of wind, or other obstacles.
By the late 1860s, crinolines were beginning to reduce in size and, in the early 1870s, they were largely replaced by the smaller crinolettes and the bustle.
La Crinolinomanie: C'est ben ça, tout d'même, caricature, Courtesy Staatliche Museum zu Berlin
Ernest, tu veilles bien sur ma robe, n'est-ce pas?, Caricature, Courtesy Staatliche Museum zu Berlin
The Complex History of Hoop Skirts
Discover why hoop skirts are not only remarkable in their construction, but also have a complex history during the Victorian Era.
Victorian Era · Apr 10, 2019
THE COMPLEX HISTORY OF HOOP SKIRTS
During the Victorian Era, which lasted from approximately 1820 - 1900, strict social rules were paramount. Women were expected to maintain a prim and proper appearance while always acting respectable and demure in public. Despite this emphasis on a meek demeanor, the Victorian era clothing that women wore during this era was nothing short of outrageous by today’s standards. Rigid corsets, gigantic hoop skirts, and layers of heavy fabric resulted in garments that were incredibly cumbersome and difficult to wear. Just like the corset, the hoop skirt is an excellent example of how Victorian women used a stiff framework to manipulate their figure and exaggerate their appearance. As corsets encouraged waistlines to become smaller, hoop skirts got larger and larger. At one point, hoop skirts had a diameter of nearly 6-feet. Worn by both women and girls, hoop skirts were popular both in Victorian England and American high society during most of the 1800s. The appearance of these large, dramatic dress designs has been immortalized in historic paintings as well as culturally relevant films like “Gone with the Wind.” Hoop skirts are not only remarkable in their construction, but also have a complex history. They also are an interesting way to examine the ways in which clothing was used to dismantle the rigid class barriers that existed within Victorian society.
In the early 1800, voluminous skirts were becoming incredibly popular among wealthy Victorian women. Victorian dresses constructed during this time created increasingly large skirts with the help of crinoline. At this time, crinoline consisted of stiff fabric that was lined in horsehair and thread made of linen or cotton. Multiple layers of heavy crinoline was used in the 1830 to construct petticoats for women who wanted their gowns to feature large skirts. Sometimes up to 6 layers of crinoline were used to create the amount of volume women wanted. Unfortunately, these multiple layers of crinoline were incredibly uncomfortable. Not only were they heavy, but they also tangled and stuck together whenever women walked around. To remedy this issue but still provide women with the extra-large skirts they so desperately desired, the extension skirt - or hoop skirt - was created. Hoop skirts were not a wholly original idea. In the 16th and 17th century, rigid “farthingales” were worn under the gowns of Spanish nobility to increase the width and volume of their skirts. Similarly, 18th century “panniers” were wide structures that greatly extended a skirt’s width. The Victorian hoop skirt is an extension and reinvention of this classic idea. Originally, materials like cane and whale bones were used to manufacture these extension skirts. The delicate nature of these materials, however, did not pair well with the heavy textiles that were used to manufacture Victorian Era gowns. These early hoop skirts broke quite easily. To remedy this issue, designers started manufacturing hoop skirts out of more durable materials. At first, thin strips of brass replaced cane. While certainly more durable, this material proved to be too rigid. As you can imagine, sitting down while wearing a metal cage was uncomfortable, not to mention nearly impossible. Flattened steel wire eventually became the material of choice when creating hoop skirts for Victorian women. This wire was durable enough to withstand multiple wears. It also allowed for a certain amount of elasticity. Women could now flatten out their skirts when getting in and out of carriages, only to have the skirt spring back to its original shape when released. This flexibility was one of the many reasons that hoop skirts made of steel wire became incredibly popular amongst the masses. This material also proved to be lightweight and more comfortable that hoop skirts in the past. These wire cages required only two petticoats, making them much lighter than the multiple layers of fabric required for original crinolines. As demand for these lightweight hoop skirts rose, supply followed. At one time, nearly 60,000 yards of steel wire was manufactured each day to create fashionable hoop skirts. Companies like Douglas & Sherwood, A.T. Stewart, and New York’s Osborn & Vincent had large factories and employed hundreds of people. Large London companies employed thousands of workers were reportedly producing up to 4,000 crinoline cages a day at one point. During the last half of the 1850s, hoop skirts reached peak popularity. This led to the release of different models and shapes of hoop skirts. The “Imperial Skirt,” the “Champion Belle,” and the “Balmoral Skirt” were all alternatives for women to choose from. The durable “Woven Extension Skirt” was also praised for its indestructability thanks to a mesh “cage” that was woven between the hoops. In the mid-1860s, the appearance of hoop skirts began to change. Rather than voluminous, symmetrical cages, women started to prefer rear trains or bustles. Instead of a full dome, skirts decreased in size in the front and increased in the back. The “Bon-Ton Skirt” was a popular option that had a form-fitting front and a large, pannier-like bustle in the back. Their popularity and mass production also lead to hoop skirts becoming more durable, comfortable, and even easier to clean. A “Winged Lace” improved upon the wire hoop skirts original design. This model had a circumference of nearly 85-inches and was designed to prevent these new, form-fitting designs from tripping up the women who wore them. They were also much easier to clean, making them a dream for women who wanted to wear them as often as possible.