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    barbiturates, tranquilizers, and methaqualone are classified as what type of drug?

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    Depressants

    Depressants

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    Include such drugs as barbiturates, methaqualone (Quaaludes), and tranquilizers such as Valium, Librium, Equanil, Meprobamate, Xanax, etc.

    The effects of depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but somewhat larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering gait, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs, thereby multiplying the risks. The use of depressants can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over time may result in a tolerance to the drug, leading the user to increase the quantity consumed. When regular users suddenly stop taking large doses, they may develop withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia, and anxiety, to convulsions and death. Babies born to mothers who abuse depressants during pregnancy may be physically dependent on the drugs and show withdrawal symptoms shortly after they are born. Birth defects and behavioral problems also may result.

    Source : catalog.bscc.edu

    Methaqualone

    Methaqualone

    Methaqualone (MQ, 470), 2-methyl-3-(2-methylphenyl)quinazolin-4(3H)-one, an hypnotic and anticonvulsive drug, is one of the leading examples of atropisomeric six-membered N-aryl heterocycles.

    From: Advances in Heterocyclic Chemistry, 2012

    Related terms:

    BarbiturateQuinazolineMetaboliteAnticonvulsantBenzodiazepineCocaineHeroinEnantiomerHypnotic Sedative Agent

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    Methaqualone

    Christopher P. Holstege, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Second Edition), 2005

    Clinical Management

    Basic and advanced life-support measures should be implemented as necessary. Gastrointestinal decontamination procedures should be used as appropriate based on the patient's level of consciousness and history of ingestion. Activated charcoal can be used to adsorb methaqualone. The patient's level of consciousness and vital signs should be monitored closely. Obtunded patients with reduced gag reflex should be intubated to prevent pulmonary aspiration. Respiratory support, including oxygen and ventilation, should be provided as needed. If hypotension occurs it should be treated with standard measures including intravenous fluids, Trendelenburg positioning, and dopamine by intravenous infusion. Forced diuresis, hemoperfusion, and hemodialysis are of no value in methaqualone toxicity. Seizures should be treated with benzodiazepines. Coagulation studies and platelet counts should be obtained. If withdrawal signs and symptoms develop, treatment should consist of benzodiazepine therapy with a gradual dose reduction.

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    FORENSIC SCIENCES | Illicit Drugs

    N.N. Daéid, in Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), 2005

    Methaqualone and Meclaqualone

    Methaqualone was first synthesized in 1951 and introduced as a new drug that produced sedation and sleep in 1956. Methaqualone has been initially designed to counter the nervous damages caused by long-term consumption and to reduce the risk of the dependency potential of barbiturates. Interest in methaqualone rose dramatically in recent years. Its popularity was due to its undeserved reputation as an ‘aphrodisiac’ often in combination with diphenhydramine. Because of its strong habit-forming properties the drug was placed in the list of controlled substances and the legal manufacturer stopped its production and removed it from the market in 1984.

    Methaqualone and meclaqualone were prepared as nonbarbiturate sleeping tablets, though they have also legally been used as hypnotics in some European countries. They appear on the illicit drug market either through diversion from the legitimate pharmaceutical trade or through illicit synthesis. The illicit samples are usually brown or gray powders with varying degrees of purity. Methaqualone is also used sometimes as a cutting agent for heroin.

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    Forensic Science

    Thomas Kraemer, Hans H. Maurer, in Handbook of Analytical Separations, 2008

    6.6.2 Methaqualone

    Methaqualone (2-methyl-3-o-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone; Fig. 6.8) is a powerful sedative, which was widely used. It has a high potential for addiction and was therefore scheduled. Since modern sedative–hypnotics such as benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine BZ1 (omega 1) receptor agonists such as zopiclone, zaleplon or zolpidem show much less toxicity, its use in pharmacotherapy has decreased. Since methaqualone is relatively stable and since it shows favorable LC and GC properties, it has become a very widely used internal standard for GC and LC determinations of many different classes of analytes [350,444–448].

    Relatively few papers on detection of methaqualone were published in the 1990s. In two papers, the use of immunoassays for methaqualone detection was described. Klinger et al. [449] proposed the addition of two volumes of N,N-dimethylformamide to serum, plasma, and postmortem blood with subsequent centrifugation. The resulting supernatant could be directly analyzed by EMIT® d.a.u.® urine reagents [449]. Brenner et al. [450] compared immunoassay and GC-MS results prior to and after cleavage of conjugates. They concluded, that the immunoassays cross-reacted with the conjugated hydroxy metabolites. Since the biggest part of the hydroxy metabolites is excreted as conjugates, cleavage of conjugates was necessary before GC-MS analysis [450].

    Methaqualone makes no great demands on the analytical techniques. Different liquid–liquid and SPEs are described and they work quite well. Usual RP-LC and GC systems are suitable for separation. UV-DAD or, even better, MS detection is recommended. Several screening procedures using LC-DAD [384,389,451,452] or using GC-MS [17,48] cover besides other analytes the detection of methaqualone.

    Since methaqualone reaches high concentrations in biomatrices, detection and quantification of methaqualone in urine, blood and gastric content using CE was possible [453]. Assessment of the stereoselective metabolism of methaqualone was successfully done by CE [454,455]. For determination in hair GC-MS was preferred [453].

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    Six-membered Rings with Two Heteroatoms, and their Fused Carbocyclic Derivatives

    Tao Cao, ... Jian Jin, in Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry IV, 2022

    8.02.12.2.4 Other activities

    One of the most infamous quinazolinone derivatives is methaqualone (Fig. 19), also referred to as “Quaalude”. Methaqualone is a powerful sedative and hypnotic drug that was initially indicated in the treatment of insomnia, but was largely abused as a recreational drug in the 1960s and 1970s. Recent work has elucidated that methaqualone exerts its sedative effects by selective modulation of diverse subtypes of the GABAA receptor, with binding modes that are distinct from those of other known drugs that interact with this, such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates.637

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

    Chapter 26

    Start studying Chapter 26 - Drugs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Chapter 26 - Drugs

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    Depressants

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    Barbiturates, tranquilizers, and methaqualone are

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    Illegal Drugs

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    Street drugs or those substances which are against the law for people to make, use, buy, or sell are all

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    1/20 Created by mrscrawfordfhs

    Terms in this set (20)

    Depressants

    Barbiturates, tranquilizers, and methaqualone are

    Illegal Drugs

    Street drugs or those substances which are against the law for people to make, use, buy, or sell are all

    Hashish

    A form of cannabis that is usually sold in small brown chunks that are smoked in a pipe is

    Loss of Motivation

    What is a common characteristic of a marijuana user?

    Inhalants

    Substances with breathable fumes that are sniffed to give a hallucinogenic high are

    Paranoia

    Irrational suspiciousness or distrust of others

    Designer Drug

    Ecstasy, a combination stimulant and hallucinogen, is an example of a

    Drug Free School Zones

    Areas within 1,000 feet of schools where there are especially tough penalties for selling drugs

    Stimulants

    Crack, meth, and amphetamines are all examples of

    Cannabis

    Hashish is derived from

    Substance Abuse

    Using legally prescribed medicine for nonmedical reasons is an example of

    Gateway Drugs

    Drugs that often lead to other serious and dangerous drug use

    Substance Abuse

    Any unnecessary or improper use of chemical substances for nonmedical purposes

    Narcotics

    Drugs derived from the opium plant that have a sedative effect

    Euphoria

    A feeling of intense will-being or elation that may be followed by a complete letdown

    Hallucinogens

    Drugs that alter moods, thoughts, and sense

    perceptions, including vision, hearing, smell,

    and touch Marijuana

    Cannabis that is smoked, eaten, or drunk for intoxicating effects

    Anabolic Steroids

    Use of this substance can result in mood swings and rage

    Crack

    A form of cocaine that can be smoked

    Tolerance

    Needing more and more of a drug to get the same effects and eventually needing it to function

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