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    at one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. this best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of the _____ model.

    James

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    get at one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. this best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of the _____ model. from EN Bilgi.

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    Chapters 13

    Psychological Disorders

    Practice Exm

    1. In general, women are more vulnerable than men to ________ disorders such as ________.

    A) active; anxiety

    B) passive; depression

    C) active; antisocial conduct

    D) passive; alcohol abuse

    2. The diagnostic reliability of DSM-IV:

    A) is unknown.

    B) depends on the age of the patient.

    C) is very low.

    D) is relatively high.

    3. Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of:

    A) antisocial personality disorder.

    B) dissociative identity disorder.

    C) obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    D) paranoid schizophrenia.

    E) agoraphobia.

    4. The social-cognitive perspective has linked the experience of depression to:

    A) learned helplessness.

    B) unresolved childhood anger.

    C) external attributions for failure.

    D) disruptions in conscious awareness.

    E) a lack of guilt feelings.

    5. Michael complains that threatening voices are constantly telling him that he is so evil that he should drown himself. Michael is experiencing:

    A) a panic attack. B) catatonia. C) flat affect. D) hallucinations.

    E) a dissociative disorder.

    6. Amanda's therapist suggests that her depression results from mistakenly blaming herself rather than a slumping economy for her recent job loss. Her therapist's suggestion best illustrates a:

    A) DSM-IV diagnosis.

    B) psychoanalytic perspective.

    C) medical model.

    D) social-cognitive perspective.

    7. Janette, a 30-year-old teacher, regularly loses her temper and experiences tension and fatigue. Her behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as psychologically disordered if it is:

    A) personally disabling and a cause of suffering.

    B) a reaction to the stresses of her career.

    C) not caused by a biological impairment.

    D) a symptom of her own unconscious conflicts.

    E) indicative of a lifelong personality style.

    8. Which of the following is not a symptom of schizophrenia?

    A) inappropriate emotions

    B) disturbed perceptions

    C) panic attacks

    D) disorganized thinking

    9. Which of the following is the most pervasive of the psychological disorders?

    A) depression B) schizophrenia C) bipolar disorder

    D) generalized anxiety disorder

    10. Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of:

    A) a panic disorder.

    B) an obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    C) a generalized anxiety disorder.

    D) a dissociative disorder.

    E) a histrionic personality disorder.

    11. Hearing voices would be a(n) ________; believing that you are Napoleon would be a(n) ________.

    A) obsession; compulsion

    B) compulsion; obsession

    C) delusion; hallucination

    D) hallucination; delusion

    12. (Close-up) Hussein, who suffers from chronic loneliness, probably attributes his unsatisfactory social relationships to:

    A) an inherited trait.

    B) his own inadequacies.

    C) a cultural norm.

    D) the social incompetence of other people.

    13. Which of the following is true of the medical model?

    A) In recent years, it has been in large part discredited.

    B) It views psychological disorders as sicknesses that are diagnosable and treatable.

    C) It emphasizes the role of psychological factors in disorders over that of physiological factors.

    D) It focuses on cognitive factors.

    14. At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts were made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

    A) the trait perspective.

    B) the legal insanity defense.

    C) the DSM-IV.

    D) the medical model.

    E) linkage analysis.

    15. If researchers discovered that genetically influenced abnormalities in brain structure contribute to bipolar disorder, this would most clearly add credibility to:

    A) the DSM-IV.

    B) the medical model.

    C) the social-cognitive perspective.

    D) psychoanalytic theory.

    E) the humanistic perspective.

    16. Behavior is classified as disordered when it is:

    A) atypical. B) maladaptive. C) unjustifiable. D) disturbing.

    E) all of the above.

    17. Which of the following provides evidence that human fears have been subjected to the evolutionary process?

    A) Compulsive acts typically exaggerate behaviors that contributed to our species' survival.

    B) Most phobias focus on objects that our ancestors also feared.

    C) It is easier to condition some fears than others.

    D) All of the above provide evidence.

    18. The fact that disorders such as schizophrenia are universal and influenced by heredity, whereas other disorders such as anorexia nervosa are culture-bound provides evidence for the ________ model of psychological disorders.

    A) medical

    B) bio-psycho-social

    C) social-cultural D) psychoanalytic

    19. Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates:

    Source : webspace.ship.edu

    Psychology AP Chapter 16 Flashcards

    Start studying Psychology AP Chapter 16. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Psychology AP Chapter 16

    134 studiers in the last day

    the medical model

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    At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts are made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

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    a biopsychosocial approach

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    People around the world may experience the same genetically based disorder quite differently depending on their own personal expectations and the definitions of abnormality common to their unique culture. This best illustrates the need for

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    Terms in this set (57)

    the medical model

    At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. These have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals in which attempts are made to diagnose and cure those with psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:

    a biopsychosocial approach

    People around the world may experience the same genetically based disorder quite differently depending on their own personal expectations and the definitions of abnormality common to their unique culture. This best illustrates the need for

    DSM-IV

    A current authoritative scheme for classifying psychological disorders is known as the

    generalized anxiety disorder

    Lenore is unexplainably and continually tense and is plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from a

    agoraphobia

    The avoidance of situations in which help may not be available when panic strikes is most characteristic of

    post-traumatic stress disorder

    Years after he barely survived a terrorist attack that killed his wife and two children, Mr. Puskari suffers recurring flashbacks and frequent nightmares of the event that render him incapable of holding a steady job. Mr. Puskari is most clearly showing signs of

    learning

    Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.

    dissociative disorder

    A sudden loss of memory is one of the symptoms of a(n)

    a mood disorder

    Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from

    a manic episode

    An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with

    delusions

    Mr. James believes that people are constantly laughing at him and that FBI agents are trying to steal his life savings. Mr. James is most clearly suffering from

    Catatonia

    periods of immobility or excessive, purposeless movement

    hallucinations

    Therapeutic drugs that block dopamine receptors are most likely to reduce

    viral infections

    The relationship between the season of the year in which people are born and their subsequent risk of schizophrenia best highlights the role of ________ in this disorder

    antisocial personality disorder

    Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions

    ADHD

    Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of

    biasing power of diagnostic labels

    After participants in one study were informed that a videotaped interviewee was a psychiatric patient, they characterized the person with phrases such as "a passive type" and "frightened of his own impulses." This study best illustrated the

    panic disorder

    Symptoms that may be misperceived as a heart attack are most characteristic of

    phobia

    Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from a

    an obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of

    mania

    Mr. Hoffman has always been cautious with his money, but over the past two weeks he has developed grandiose plans to bet his entire life savings on a single horse race. With unrestrained exuberance he has also been giving everybody he sees unsolicited advice on how to make millions in the stock market. Mr. Hoffman's behavior is most indicative of

    psychoanalytic perspective

    The suggestion that dissociative identity disorders are created as defenses against the anxiety caused by one's own unacceptable impulses best illustrates the

    a persistently sad mood and low energy level

    A dysthymic disorder is most likely to be characterized by

    learned helplessness

    Source : quizlet.com

    Mental Health Treatment: Then and Now

    Mental Health Treatment: Then and Now

    Mental Health Treatment: Then and Now What you’ll learn to do: describe the treatment of mental health disorders over time

    It was once believed that people with psychological disorders, or those exhibiting strange behavior, were possessed by demons. These people were forced to take part in exorcisms, were imprisoned, or executed. Later, asylums were built to house the mentally ill, but the patients received little to no treatment, and many of the methods used were cruel. Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix argued for more humane treatment of people with psychological disorders. In the mid-1960s, the deinstitutionalization movement gained support and asylums were closed, enabling people with mental illness to return home and receive treatment in their own communities. Some did go to their family homes, but many became homeless due to a lack of resources and support mechanisms.

    Today, instead of asylums, there are psychiatric hospitals run by state governments and local community hospitals, with the emphasis on short-term stays. However, most people suffering from mental illness are not hospitalized. A person suffering symptoms could speak with a primary care physician, who most likely would refer him to someone who specializes in therapy. The person can receive outpatient mental health services from a variety of sources, including psychologists, psychiatrists, marriage and family therapists, school counselors, clinical social workers, and religious personnel. These therapy sessions would be covered through insurance, government funds, or private (self) pay.

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Explain how people with psychological disorders have been treated throughout the ages and discuss deinstitutionalization

    Describe the ways in which mental health services are delivered today, including the distinction between voluntary and involuntary treatment

    Figure 1. This painting by Francisco Goya, called The Madhouse, depicts a mental asylum and its inhabitants in the early 1800s. It portrays those with psychological disorders as victims.

    Mental Health Treatment In The Past

    For much of history, the mentally ill have been treated very poorly. It was believed that mental illness was caused by demonic possession, witchcraft, or an angry god (Szasz, 1960). For example, in medieval times, abnormal behaviors were viewed as a sign that a person was possessed by demons. If someone was considered to be possessed, there were several forms of treatment to release spirits from the individual. The most common treatment was exorcism, often conducted by priests or other religious figures: Incantations and prayers were said over the person’s body, and she may have been given some medicinal drinks. Another form of treatment for extreme cases of mental illness was trephining: A small hole was made in the afflicted individual’s skull to release spirits from the body. Most people treated in this manner died. In addition to exorcism and trephining, other practices involved execution or imprisonment of people with psychological disorders. Still others were left to be homeless beggars. Generally speaking, most people who exhibited strange behaviors were greatly misunderstood and treated cruelly. The prevailing theory of psychopathology in earlier history was the idea that mental illness was the result of demonic possession by either an evil spirit or an evil god because early beliefs incorrectly attributed all unexplainable phenomena to deities deemed either good or evil.

    From the late 1400s to the late 1600s, a common belief perpetuated by some religious organizations was that some people made pacts with the devil and committed horrible acts, such as eating babies (Blumberg, 2007). These people were considered to be witches and were tried and condemned by courts—they were often burned at the stake. Worldwide, it is estimated that tens of thousands of mentally ill people were killed after being accused of being witches or under the influence of witchcraft (Hemphill, 1966)

    By the 18th century, people who were considered odd and unusual were placed in asylums. Asylums were the first institutions created for the specific purpose of housing people with psychological disorders, but the focus was ostracizing them from society rather than treating their disorders. Often these people were kept in windowless dungeons, beaten, chained to their beds, and had little to no contact with caregivers.

    In the late 1700s, a French physician, Philippe Pinel, argued for more humane treatment of the mentally ill. He suggested that they be unchained and talked to, and that’s just what he did for patients at La Salpêtrière in Paris in 1795 (Figure 2). Patients benefited from this more humane treatment, and many were able to leave the hospital.

    Figure 2. This painting by Tony Robert-Fleury depicts Dr. Philippe Pinel ordering the removal of chains from patients at the Salpêtrière asylum in Paris.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

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