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    Blood Flow Through the Heart: Pathways and Circulation

    Blood flows through your heart in a series of steps. Every second, blood goes to your heart, collects oxygen and pumps out to the rest of your body.

    Blood Flow Through Your Heart

    Each time your heart beats, it pumps out oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to your body. Blood flows through a network of vessels called the circulatory system. When blood returns to your heart, it flows to your lungs to receive oxygen. Then your heart pumps that blood out to the rest of your body, and the process begins again.

    What is the role of blood flow through the heart?

    Your heart is a powerful muscle, about the size of your fist. Every second, it pumps nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood to your body. With each heartbeat, your heart sends blood through your circulatory system.

    Blood is crucial to remain alive. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients from your heart to other tissues throughout your body. It also carries waste products such as carbon dioxide away from your tissues.

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    What is the circulatory system?

    Your circulatory system is a network of blood vessels. Blood vessels are small tubes that carry blood all over your body. Blood flows through three types of blood vessels:

    Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from your heart.Capillaries are tiny, thin blood vessels that connect veins and arteries.Veins carry oxygen-poor blood from your body’s tissues back to your heart.

    Where does blood flow through the heart?

    Your heart itself is made of muscle nourished by blood vessels. Your heart has four chambers. The chambers are like rooms in the “house” of your heart. If you look at a diagram of a heart, these chambers divide into upper and lower chambers and left and right chambers.

    Atria are your two upper heart chambers. You have a left atrium and a right atrium.Ventricles are your two lower heart chambers. You have a left ventricle and a right ventricle.

    Between the top and bottom chambers, you have heart valves. Heart valves open and close to allow for proper blood flow. Your valves ensure that blood flows only in one direction. These valves are:

    Aortic valve connects your left ventricle and aorta (large artery that carries blood throughout your body).Mitral valve connects your left atrium and left ventricle.Pulmonary valve connects your right ventricle and pulmonary arteries (arteries that carry blood to your lungs).Tricuspid valve connects your right atrium and right ventricle.

    What is the order of blood flow through the heart, step by step?

    The right and left sides of your heart work together to ensure blood flows throughout your whole body. Blood flows through your heart through a series of steps. These steps take place in the space of one heartbeat — just a second or two.

    On the right side

    Oxygen-poor blood from all over your body enters your right atrium through two large veins, your inferior vena cava and superior vena cava.

    Your tricuspid valve opens to let blood travel from your right atrium to your right ventricle.

    When your right ventricle is full it squeezes, which closes your tricuspid valve and opens your pulmonary valve.

    Blood flows through your pulmonary artery to your lungs, where it gets oxygen.

    On the left side

    Oxygen-rich blood travels from your lungs to your left atrium through large veins called pulmonary veins.

    Your mitral valve opens to send blood from your left atrium to your left ventricle.

    When your left ventricle is full it squeezes, which closes your mitral valve and opens your aortic valve.

    Your heart sends blood through your aortic valve to your aorta, where it flows to the rest of your body.

    What signals control your heartbeat?

    Your heart contracts (beats) when it receives an electrical impulse from your sinoatrial (SA) node. This signal is called heart conduction. The SA node is your body’s “natural pacemaker,” setting your heart’s rhythm.

    Heart conduction continues as the electrical signal moves to the atrioventricular (AV) node in your right atria. The signal then travels down the His-Purkinje system (a bundle of special fibers) and spreads to the rest of your heart.

    How fast or slow your heart beats varies throughout the day. Your nervous system sends electrical signals and your endocrine system sends hormones that control your heart rate. These signals help your heart adapt to your body’s changing needs. For example, your heartbeat quickens when you run and slows when you sleep.

    How much blood does your heart pump?

    Your heart pumps about 2,000 gallons of blood each day. That’s enough to fill an 8-by-10-foot swimming pool!

    It beats around 100,000 times daily. In an average life span of almost 79 years, your heart beats nearly 2.9 billion times.

    What conditions or disorders affect your heart’s blood flow?

    Some conditions can affect the pathway of blood flow in your heart. Some of these conditions include:

    Arrhythmia: An irregular heartbeat, including atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation.Congestive heart failure: Damage or weakness in your heart muscle, making it harder for your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body.Coronary artery disease: Hardening and narrowing of the arteries that carry blood to your heart muscle as a result of plaque buildup.

    Source : my.clevelandclinic.org

    Which structures of the heart control the flow of the blood?

    Click here👆to get an answer to your question ✍️ Which structures of the heart control the flow of the blood?


    Which structures of the heart control the flow of the blood?









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    Correct option is C)

    There are four valves present in our heart that control blood flow. Valves help in blood flow in the right direction. The four valves constitute two atrioventricular valves, one bicuspid valve, and one tricuspid valve. Contraction of these valves controls the blood flow to heart chambers and from the heart to arteries.

    Arteries and veins are two type of blood vessels that are present in the circulatory system. Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to different parts of the body and veins carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart for purification.

    Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels present in the body. It carries glucose and oxygen to cells and takes back waste products like carbon dioxide to blood. This blood is carried to heart by veins for purification.

    So, the correct option is 'Valves'.

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    One-Way Valve

    One-Way Valve Related terms:

    Personal Protective EquipmentImpedanceCheck ValveElectric PotentialMucous MembraneSkin Contact

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    Cardiac diseases and their diagnosis methods

    Kalpana Chauhan, Rajeev Kumar Chauhan, in Image Processing for Automated Diagnosis of Cardiac Diseases, 2021

    1.2 Heart valves

    The two atrioventricular (AV), one-way valves are thin structures, having connective tissues and endocardia. These valves, namely, the bicuspid/mitral and the tricuspid AV valves are located between the LA and the LV, and the RA and RV, respectively. The two semilunar, one-way valves are made up of three flaps, each composed of connective tissues and endocardium as well as fibers to prevent the valves from flapping inside out. Their shapes are like a half moon and thus they are called the semilunar (SL) aortic valve and SL pulmonary valve. These valves are located between the left ventricle and aorta and between the RV and the start of pulmonary artery. Fig. 1.1 shows these valves. The heart’s one-way blood flow is maintained with the help of four heart valves, each one having a specific position on the exits of the four chambers. These four heart valves allow only the one-way flow of blood in the forward directions and restrict the backward flow of blood. Sequence of blood flow is from the atria (right and left) into the ventricles (right and left) through the open tricuspid and mitral valves, respectively, as shown in Fig. 1.1. According to pressure change in the chambers, there is an opening or closing of AV valves. They close during the ventricular systole (contraction) when the ventricle pressure increases the pressure in the two atria. This action keeps the valves snapped shut and prevents backward flow of blood. The contraction of the ventricles leads to forced opening of the pulmonary and aortic valves to pump the blood from the right and left ventricles into the pulmonary artery (through open valves) towards the lungs, and through the aortic valve to the aorta and the body. At the end of contraction, the ventricles begin to relax and the aortic and pulmonic valves remain closed during the diastole. Backward flow of blood into the ventricles is prevented by these valves. This pattern repeats again and again, causing continuous blood flow from the heart to the lungs and the body.

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    Fig. 1.1. Classification of heart valves.

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    Hydra-Jet Fracturing Bottom-Hole Assembly

    Zhongwei Huang, ... Subhash Shah, in Abrasive Water Jet Perforation and Multi-Stage Fracturing, 2018

    7.4 The Accessary Parts

    The accessary parts mainly include the centralizer, one-way valve, screen pipe, and the guide. The centralizer, with a greater diameter than the jet sub, is set on a short tubing sub and can move freely. The reason for such design is to avoid sand-sticking. That is, if there is down-hole BHA sand-sticking, we must try to move the tubing string first. As the centralizers are not fixed with the jet sub, it will be easy to release the BHA when sand-stuck. The one-way valve functions as a reverse circulation passage. When necessary, we can pump fluid from the annulus with a higher flow rate, opening the one-way valve. This operation is mostly to solve BHA accidents. Furthermore, the screen pipe plays the role of filtering bigger particles from entering the BHA under reverse circulation. Naturally, the guide, set at the end of the BHA, leads the tool tripping into a well smoothly.

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    Susan Blanchard PhD, in Introduction to Biomedical Engineering (Second Edition), 2005

    Example Problem 3.7

    What would be the cardiac output of the heart in Example Problem 3.6 if the stroke volume were 75 ml?


    The cardiac output (given in liters per minute) is the product of the heart rate and the stroke volume.


    During atrial and ventricular systole, special one-way valves (Fig. 3.23a) keep the blood moving in the correct direction. When the atria contract, the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) open to allow blood to pass into the ventricles. During ventricular systole, the semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonary) open to allow blood to leave the heart while the atrioventricular valves close and prevent blood from flowing backwards from the ventricles to the atria. The aortic and pulmonary valves prevent blood from flowing back from the pulmonary artery and aorta into the right and left ventricles, respectively. If a valve becomes calcified or diseased or is not properly formed during embryonic development, it can be replaced by an artificial valve (Fig. 3.23b), a device that has been developed by cooperative work between biomedical engineers and physicians.

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    Figure 3.23. (a) The atrioventricular (tricuspid and mitral) and semilunar (pulmonary and aortic) valves. (b) Three types of artificial valves—tissue, floating disc, and caged ball—that can be used to replace diseased or malformed human valves.

    Source : www.sciencedirect.com

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