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    angela has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. which of the following symptoms might she have?

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    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Original Editors - Dana Moorer & Kaelin Hocker from Bellarmine University's Pathophysiology of Complex Patient Problems project.

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Online Course: Animal Physiotherapy Foundation Programme

    Definition/Description

    Generalized anxiety disorder GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders. Up to 20% of adults are affected by anxiety disorders each year. Generalized anxiety disorder produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things.

    This worry could be multifocal such as finance, family, health, and the future.

    It is excessive, difficult to control, and is often accompanied by many non-specific psychological and physical symptoms[1]

    GAD can be considered primary or secondary depending on the onset.

    If GAD occurs early in life without any other diagnosis than it is considered primary.

    If GAD develops later in life and there are other disorders present, it is considered secondary in nature. [2]

    [3]

    Epidemiology

    In the general population, the lifetime prevalence of GAD is 5.1%, with a 12‐month prevalence measured at 3.1%.

    Within the primary care setting, the WHO collaborative study on Psychological Disorders in Primary Health Care studyreported that GAD formed the second largest category of psychological disorders, with a prevalence of just under 7.9%.

    A survey of high utilisers of medical health care found a particularly high prevalence rate of GAD at 22%, and the prevalence of GAD in patients visiting physicians' offices has been shown to be twice that found in the community.

    Women have a higher prevalence rate for GAD than men, with the median age of onset occurring during the early 20s.[4]

    [5]

    Symptoms

    GAD can be a challenge to diagnose. People consider panic attacks a hallmark of all anxiety disorders, but GAD is different in that there are generally no panic attacks associated with the condition. As a result of this misconception, without the experience of panic attacks, a person may think they are "just worrying too much." Their struggles with constant worry may be minimized or dismissed and, in turn, not properly diagnosed or treated

    The DSM-5 outlines specific criteria to help professionals diagnose generalized anxiety disorder. Having a standard set of symptoms to reference when assessing clients helps them to more accurately diagnose mental health concerns and, in turn, create a more effective plan of care.

    Criteria for Diagnosing GAD: When assessing for GAD, clinical professionals are looking for the following:

    The presence of excessive anxiety and worry about a variety of topics, events, or activities. Worry occurs more often than not for at least six months and is clearly excessive.

    The worry is experienced as very challenging to control. The worry in both adults and children may easily shift from one topic to another.

    The anxiety and worry are accompanied by at least three of the following physical or cognitive symptoms (In children, only one of these symptoms is necessary for a diagnosis of GAD):

    Edginess or restlessness

    Tiring easily; more fatigued than usual

    Impaired concentration or feeling as though the mind goes blank

    Irritability (which may or may not be observable to others)

    Increased muscle aches or soreness

    Difficulty sleeping (due to trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, restlessness at night, or unsatisfying sleep)[6]

    Causes

    There is no singular cause of GAD that has been identified. Evidence has shown that multiple factors are usually at play, influencing the development of GAD. Some of the common factors include things like genetic predisposition, brain chemistry, family background, social influence, and life experiences. See examples below:

    The limbic system is a collection of brain structures that, among other functions, is involved in the regulation of many of basic emotional reactions. The amygdala, in particular, is the part of the limbic system involved in the automatic fear response, as well as in the integration of memory and emotion. The amygdala is an important player in people's ability to discern and feel fear, so it may not be a surprise that imaging studies of people diagnosed with GAD show elevated amygdala activity during the processing of negative emotions. [6]It is this heightened activity within the amygdala that researchers believe might influence the inaccurate interpretations of social behavior for patients with GAD.

    Life Experiences: Although genetic and biologic factors clearly contribute to the development of GAD, a greater percentage of the risk for GAD lies in complex psychological, environmental, and social factors.

    Source : www.physio-pedia.com

    Anxiety Disorders: Types, Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

    An anxiety disorder is a type of mental health condition. Anxiety disorders interfere with your ability to function. Treatments include medications and psychotherapy.

    Anxiety Disorders

    Anxiety disorders are a type of mental health condition. Anxiety makes it difficult to get through your day. Symptoms include feelings of nervousness, panic and fear as well as sweating and a rapid heartbeat. Treatments include medications and cognitive behavioral therapy. Your healthcare can design a treatment plan that’s best for you.

    OVERVIEW

    What is an anxiety disorder?

    An anxiety disorder is a type of mental health condition. If you have an anxiety disorder, you may respond to certain things and situations with fear and dread. You may also experience physical signs of anxiety, such as a pounding heart and sweating.

    It’s normal to have some anxiety. You may feel anxious or nervous if you have to tackle a problem at work, go to an interview, take a test or make an important decision. And anxiety can even be beneficial. For example, anxiety helps us notice dangerous situations and focuses our attention, so we stay safe.

    But an anxiety disorder goes beyond the regular nervousness and slight fear you may feel from time to time. An anxiety disorder happens when:

    Anxiety interferes with your ability to function.

    You often overreact when something triggers your emotions.

    You can’t control your responses to situations.

    Anxiety disorders can make it difficult to get through the day. Fortunately, there are several effective treatments for anxiety disorders.

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    Who is at risk for anxiety disorders?

    A mix of genetic and environmental factors can raise a person’s risk for developing anxiety disorders. You may be at higher risk if you have or had:

    Certain personality traits, such as shyness or behavioral inhibition — feeling uncomfortable with, and avoiding, unfamiliar people, situations or environments.

    Stressful or traumatic events in early childhood or adulthood.

    Family history of anxiety or other mental health conditions.

    Certain physical conditions, including thyroid problems and heart arrhythmias (unusual heart rhythms).

    Anxiety disorders occur more often in women. Researchers are still studying why that happens. It may come from women’s hormones, especially those that fluctuate throughout the month. The hormone testosterone may play a role, too — men have more, and it may ease anxiety. It’s also possible that women are less likely to seek treatment, so the anxiety worsens.

    What are the types of anxiety disorders?

    There are several types of anxiety disorders, including:

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

    Panic disorder. Phobias. Separation anxiety.

    Other mental health conditions share features with anxiety disorders. These include post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?

    With GAD, you may feel extreme and unrealistic worry and tension — even if there’s nothing to trigger these feelings. Most days, you may worry a lot about various topics, including health, work, school and relationships. You may feel that the worry continues from one thing to the next.

    Physical symptoms of GAD can include restlessness, difficulty concentrating and sleeping problems.

    What is a panic disorder?

    If you have a panic disorder, you get intense, sudden panic attacks. These attacks often feature stronger, more intense feelings than other types of anxiety disorders.

    The feelings of terror may start suddenly and unexpectedly or they may come from a trigger, like facing a situation you dread. Panic attacks can resemble heart attacks. If there’s any chance you’re experiencing a heart attack, go to the emergency room. It’s better to err on the side of caution and have a healthcare professional check you.

    During a panic attack, you may experience:

    Sweating.

    Heart palpitations (feeling like your heart is pounding).

    Chest pain.

    Feeling of choking, which can make you think you’re having a heart attack or “going crazy.”

    Panic attacks are very upsetting. People with panic disorder often spend a lot of time worrying about the next panic attack. They also try to avoid situations that might trigger an attack.

    What are phobias?

    Phobias are an intense fear of certain situations or objects. Some of these fears may make sense, such as a fear of snakes. But often, the level of fear doesn’t match the situation.

    Like with other anxiety disorders, you may spend a lot of time trying to avoid situations that may trigger the phobia.

    A specific phobia, or a simple phobia, is an intense fear of a particular object or situation. It may cause you to avoid everyday situations. Some specific phobias include fear of:

    Animals, such as spiders, dogs or snakes.

    Blood. Flying. Heights. Injections (shots).

    Social anxiety disorder

    Healthcare providers used to call this condition social phobia. You may have overwhelming worry and self-consciousness with daily social situations. You may worry about others judging you or you may be anxious that you’ll embarrass yourself or open yourself up to ridicule. People with social anxiety disorder may avoid social situations entirely.

    Agoraphobia

    If you have agoraphobia, you may have an intense fear of being overwhelmed or unable to get help. Usually, you have a fear of two or more of these environments:

    Source : my.clevelandclinic.org

    Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Flashcards

    Memorize flashcards and build a practice test to quiz yourself before your exam. Start studying the Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders flashcards containing study terms like Match each positive symptom of schizophrenia with its description., Angela has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Which of the following symptoms might she have?, Match each type of personality disorder with its corresponding cluster. and more.

    Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders

    17 studiers in the last hour

    Match each positive symptom of schizophrenia with its description.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    acting strangely and having problems performing many actions.

    Correct label:disorganized behavior

    failing to follow a normal conversational structure.

    Correct label:disorganized speech.

    false sensory perceptions.

    Correct label:hallucination

    false beliefs based on misperceptions of reality.

    Correct label:delusion

    Click again to see term 👆

    Angela has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Which of the following symptoms might she have?

    Click card to see definition 👆

    experiencing difficulty sleeping.

    feeling apprehension about the future.

    experiencing difficulty concentrating.

    feeling tension.

    feeling fear in the absence of a threat.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/19 Created by Yara792

    Terms in this set (19)

    Match each positive symptom of schizophrenia with its description.

    acting strangely and having problems performing many actions.

    Correct label:disorganized behavior

    failing to follow a normal conversational structure.

    Correct label:disorganized speech.

    false sensory perceptions.

    Correct label:hallucination

    false beliefs based on misperceptions of reality.

    Correct label:delusion

    Angela has been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Which of the following symptoms might she have?

    experiencing difficulty sleeping.

    feeling apprehension about the future.

    experiencing difficulty concentrating.

    feeling tension.

    feeling fear in the absence of a threat.

    Match each type of personality disorder with its corresponding cluster.

    Cluster A: odd or eccentric behavior.

    Correct label:paranoid

    Correct label:schizotypal

    Correct label:schizoid

    Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior.

    Correct label:histrionic

    Correct label:narcissistic

    Correct label:antisocial

    Correct label:borderline

    Cluster C: anxious or fearful behavior.

    Correct label:dependent

    Correct label:avoidant

    Correct label:obsessive-compulsive

    which of the following are characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder?

    1. they may exhibit repetitive behavior that can at times be harmful.

    2. they focus on trivial details rather than social aspects of their surroundings.

    3. they do not make eye contact or use their eyes to direct other's attention.

    4. they show severe impairments in both verbal and nonverbal communication.

    Classify the descriptions as applying to either obsessive-compulsive personality disorder or OCD .

    1. Behavior is only viewed by the patient as problematic when it interferes with normal activities, such as traveling or maintaining relationships.

    2. Patient may feel compelled to eat the same food at precisely the same time and read the newspaper in a particular order.

    3. Characterized by excessive neatness and orderliness.

    Which of the following outcomes might we expect from an adult who was diagnosed with ADHD as a child?

    1. He may struggle academically.

    2. He may reach a lower-than-expected socioeconomic status.

    The criteria used to determine when someone's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors are disordered have limitations. Match the criteria with the examples of their limitations.

    One may be distressed about having gained weight in middle age, but his weight gain is not a psychological disorder.

    Correct label:causes the individual personal distress

    Failing to study for classes may cause one's parents concern, but it is not a psychological disorder.

    Correct label:causes discomfort and concern to others

    Drinking alcohol may interfere with one's ability to respond appropriately, but it is not necessarily a psychological disorder.

    Correct label:maladaptive

    An eccentrically dressed person putting on a puppet show would not be out of place in Times Square, but in a fancy mall it would be considered odd.

    Correct label:deviates from cultural norms

    How can psychological factors lead to the development of depression?

    1. People who are experiencing many negative events believe they are powerless to avoid them, so they have no motivation to make positive changes.

    2. People's negative thoughts about themselves, their situations, and the future influence each other and contribute to depression.

    3. When someone's friends stop hanging out with her because she is a bummer, this may make her depression worse.

    Place in order the steps a psychologist must take to investigate and understand a disorder.

    1. determine the etiology of the disorder

    2. identify and assess the symptoms of the disorder

    3. group symptoms into meaningful categories to make a diagnosis

    4. identify possible treatments

    Which of the following are characteristics of agoraphobia?

    1. Someone with agoraphobia will deal with the problem by avoiding open or crowded spaces.

    2. Someone with agoraphobia might fear being in a crowded shopping mall or subway.

    Identify the true and false statements about the prevalence of psychopathology.

    True Statement(s)

    1. About 1 in 4 Americans over age 18 has a psychological disorder in any given year.

    Source : quizlet.com

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