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    an isotope undergoes radioactive decay. the new isotope that forms has an atomic number that is 2 less than the original isotope’s. which kind of decay has occurred, and how do you know? alpha decay because alpha particles have a large mass beta decay because beta particles can have negative charge alpha decay because alpha particles have two protons and two neutrons gamma decay because gamma rays are photons

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    get an isotope undergoes radioactive decay. the new isotope that forms has an atomic number that is 2 less than the original isotope’s. which kind of decay has occurred, and how do you know? alpha decay because alpha particles have a large mass beta decay because beta particles can have negative charge alpha decay because alpha particles have two protons and two neutrons gamma decay because gamma rays are photons from EN Bilgi.

    21.3 Radioactive Decay – Chemistry

    21.3 RADIOACTIVE DECAY

    Learning Objectives

    By the end of this section, you will be able to:

    Recognize common modes of radioactive decay

    Identify common particles and energies involved in nuclear decay reactions

    Write and balance nuclear decay equations

    Calculate kinetic parameters for decay processes, including half-life

    Describe common radiometric dating techniques

    Following the somewhat serendipitous discovery of radioactivity by Becquerel, many prominent scientists began to investigate this new, intriguing phenomenon. Among them were Marie Curie (the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, and the only person to win two Nobel Prizes in different sciences—chemistry and physics), who was the first to coin the term “radioactivity,” and Ernest Rutherford (of gold foil experiment fame), who investigated and named three of the most common types of radiation. During the beginning of the twentieth century, many radioactive substances were discovered, the properties of radiation were investigated and quantified, and a solid understanding of radiation and nuclear decay was developed.

    The spontaneous change of an unstable nuclide into another is radioactive decay. The unstable nuclide is called the parent nuclide; the nuclide that results from the decay is known as the daughter nuclide. The daughter nuclide may be stable, or it may decay itself. The radiation produced during radioactive decay is such that the daughter nuclide lies closer to the band of stability than the parent nuclide, so the location of a nuclide relative to the band of stability can serve as a guide to the kind of decay it will undergo (Figure 1).

    Figure 1. A nucleus of uranium-238 (the parent nuclide) undergoes α decay to form thorium-234 (the daughter nuclide). The alpha particle removes two protons (green) and two neutrons (gray) from the uranium-238 nucleus.

    Although the radioactive decay of a nucleus is too small to see with the naked eye, we can indirectly view radioactive decay in an environment called a cloud chamber. Click here to learn about cloud chambers and to view an interesting Cloud Chamber Demonstration from the Jefferson Lab.

    TYPES OF RADIOACTIVE DECAY

    Ernest Rutherford’s experiments involving the interaction of radiation with a magnetic or electric field (Figure 2) helped him determine that one type of radiation consisted of positively charged and relatively massive α particles; a second type was made up of negatively charged and much less massive β particles; and a third was uncharged electromagnetic waves, γ rays. We now know that α particles are high-energy helium nuclei, β particles are high-energy electrons, and γ radiation compose high-energy electromagnetic radiation. We classify different types of radioactive decay by the radiation produced.

    Figure 2. Alpha particles, which are attracted to the negative plate and deflected by a relatively small amount, must be positively charged and relatively massive. Beta particles, which are attracted to the positive plate and deflected a relatively large amount, must be negatively charged and relatively light. Gamma rays, which are unaffected by the electric field, must be uncharged.Alpha (α) decay is the emission of an α particle from the nucleus. For example, polonium-210 undergoes α decay:

    210 84 Po ⟶ 4 2 He + 206 82 Pb or 210 84 Po ⟶ 4 2 α + 206 82 Pb

    84210Po⟶24He+82206Pbor84210Po⟶24α+82206Pb

    Alpha decay occurs primarily in heavy nuclei (A > 200, Z > 83). Because the loss of an α particle gives a daughter nuclide with a mass number four units smaller and an atomic number two units smaller than those of the parent nuclide, the daughter nuclide has a larger n:p ratio than the parent nuclide. If the parent nuclide undergoing α decay lies below the band of stability (refer to Chapter 21.1 Nuclear Structure and Stability), the daughter nuclide will lie closer to the band.

    Beta (β) decay is the emission of an electron from a nucleus. Iodine-131 is an example of a nuclide that undergoes β decay:

    131 53 I ⟶ 0 − 1 e + 131 54 Xe or 131 53 I ⟶ 0 − 1 β + 131 54 Xe

    53131I⟶−10e+54131Xeor53131I⟶−10β+54131Xe

    Beta decay, which can be thought of as the conversion of a neutron into a proton and a β particle, is observed in nuclides with a large n:p ratio. The beta particle (electron) emitted is from the atomic nucleus and is not one of the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Such nuclei lie above the band of stability. Emission of an electron does not change the mass number of the nuclide but does increase the number of its protons and decrease the number of its neutrons. Consequently, the n:p ratio is decreased, and the daughter nuclide lies closer to the band of stability than did the parent nuclide.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Radioactive decay types article (article)

    Nuclear physics

    Radioactive decay types article

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    What are nuclear reactions?

    Sometimes atoms aren’t happy just being themselves; they suddenly change into completely different atoms, without any warning. This mysterious transformation of one type of element into another is the basis of nuclear reactions, which cause one nucleus to change into a different nucleus. Just like chemical reactions cause compounds to turn into other compounds by swapping their electrons, nuclear reactions happen when the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom change.

    Some types of nuclear reactions can actually kick protons out of the nucleus, or convert them into neutrons. Since we know what to call an element by looking up its number on a periodic table and then reading off its name, when the atomic number (number of protons) changes, so does the name of the element. This makes nuclear reactions look somewhat like alchemy: an atom of potassium (atomic number 19) can suddenly and unexpectedly transform into an atom calcium (atomic number 20). The only sign that anything has changed is the release of radiation, which we’ll talk more about in a little bit.

    Even more strangely, nuclear reactions often occur almost entirely randomly. If you have a single nucleus that you are certain will eventually decay into a different nucleus, you still have only a rough idea how long it will take for you to see it happen. You could be sitting watching the nucleus for anywhere between a few seconds to your entire lifetime, and at some point it would suddenly decay without any warning! However, depending on the type of nucleus, you can predict how long on average it would take to decay if you watched many nuclei at once. So while the average time to decay is a measurable number (for potassium it’s over a billion years), the exact time of the decay is entirely random.

    There are three types of nuclear reaction, each of which cause the nucleus to shoot out a different, fast-moving particle (like a photon or electron). These released particles are a side effect of the element changing its atomic number or mass, and they are what scientists generally mean when they warn about nuclear radiation, since fast-moving particles can act like tiny bullets that poke holes in your body. However, much nuclear radiation is actually harmless, and it occasionally can be harnessed to provide new type of medical or diagnostic tools.

    Why do nuclear reactions happen?

    Not all elements undergo nuclear decay over timescales that we can observe. Some elements take millions of years to decay. In fact, most living things primarily consist of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, which have such incredibly long lifetimes that they will essentially never decay within the lifespan of the organism. This is necessary because the biochemical function of each of these atoms is specifically tied to its atomic number: if a nervous receptor specifically seeks out and binds a carbon-based signalling molecule, then it won’t work if that carbon spontaneously changes into beryllium.

    Different atoms of the same element can have different masses. For example, an atom of carbon (atomic number 6, so six protons) can have either 6 neutrons or 8 neutrons. The former case is more familiar from chemistry class, since a lot of the common light elements used in biology (like oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen) have the same number of protons as neutrons. But it turns out that the case of carbon having 6 protons and 8 neutrons, while not as stable as 6 and 6, is stable enough that it can actually occur in nature in observable amounts. Because the 8 neutron nucleus and the 6 neutron nucleus are technically both carbon, we call them different isotopes of carbon.

    Since protons and neutrons have roughly the same mass, the more common version of carbon is called carbon-12 (6 protons + 6 neutrons). The heavier isotope is called carbon-14 (6 protons + 8 neutrons). But when you look up the mass of carbon on the periodic table, it says that the mass is 12.011 atomic mass units (amu). This is because if you went out and weighed a huge batch of carbon atoms, most of the atoms you would find would weigh exactly 12 amu. But within that huge batch you’d occasionally find a carbon-14 nucleus, which would skew the average of your measurements to a value slightly higher than 12.

    For reasons that are deeply related to the fundamental forces that act in the nucleus, the tendency of a substance to undergo nuclear decay is related to both the atomic number and the atomic mass of an element. This means that two different isotopes of the same element will have different tendencies to undergo nuclear decay. In the case of carbon, the isotope carbon-14 wants to decay into nitrogen while carbon-12 (which is most of the carbon in your body) would remain stable.

    As a result, knowing which isotope is present in a sample of element not only tells us the sample’s stability, but also the type of decay it will undergo.

    What are the types of nuclear reaction?

    Alpha Decay

    Cartoon showing alpha decay.

    During alpha decay, a nucleus actually breaks up into two chunks: a pair of protons bound to a pair of neutrons (a collection of four particles which is essentially a helium nucleus, and is called an alpha particle), and another piece constituting the original nucleus minus this chunk. So we can actually write down a chemical reaction equation for alpha decay:

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Types of Radioactive Decay Flashcards

    Start studying Types of Radioactive Decay. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Types of Radioactive Decay

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    An atom that has 84 protons and 86 neutrons undergoes a reaction. At the end of the reaction, it has 82 protons and 84 neutrons. What happened to the atom?

    It accepted radiation in a chemical reaction.

    It donated neutrons to another atom in a chemical reaction.

    It emitted an alpha particle in a nuclear reaction.

    It accepted protons in a nuclear reaction.

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    NOT A

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    Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of a deuterium atom consists of one proton and one neutron. When two deuterium nuclei fuse, helium-3 is formed, and a neutron is emitted. Which equation illustrates this process?

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    NOT B A

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    Terms in this set (12)

    An atom that has 84 protons and 86 neutrons undergoes a reaction. At the end of the reaction, it has 82 protons and 84 neutrons. What happened to the atom?

    It accepted radiation in a chemical reaction.

    It donated neutrons to another atom in a chemical reaction.

    It emitted an alpha particle in a nuclear reaction.

    It accepted protons in a nuclear reaction.

    NOT A

    Deuterium is an isotope of hydrogen. The nucleus of a deuterium atom consists of one proton and one neutron. When two deuterium nuclei fuse, helium-3 is formed, and a neutron is emitted. Which equation illustrates this process?

    NOT B A

    What can form as a result of a chemical reaction?

    compounds isotopes alpha particles beta particles A

    What is a key difference between chemical and nuclear reactions?

    In chemical reactions, new compounds are formed. In nuclear reactions, compounds are destroyed.

    Chemical reactions involve electron rearrangements. Nuclear reactions involve changes to the nucleus.

    Chemical reactions involve large changes in energy. Nuclear reactions absorb or release small amounts of energy.

    In chemical reactions, only alpha radiation is emitted. In nuclear reactions, alpha, beta, and gamma decay may occur.

    B

    A scientist notices that a lump of niobium is warm to the touch and wonders if nuclear reactions are taking place in the metal. How can she find out?

    Measure the metal's temperature.

    Check for the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma particles.

    Look for the presence of niobium compounds.

    Place the niobium in a pressurized container, and see if the lump becomes warmer.

    B

    Which statement correctly compares chemical reactions with nuclear reactions?

    In chemical reactions, new isotopes are formed. In nuclear reactions, new compounds are formed.

    Chemical reactions can be represented by balanced equations. Nuclear reactions cannot be represented by balanced equations.

    In chemical reactions, small amounts of energy can be absorbed or released. In nuclear reactions, changes in energy are much larger.

    In chemical reactions, only protons and neutrons are affected. In nuclear reactions, only electrons are affected.

    C

    While a certain isotope decays, it emits photons. What kind of decay is happening?

    alpha decay beta decay gamma decay positron decay C

    Two protons and two neutrons are released as a result of this reaction.

    mc017-1.jpgRn mc017-2.jpgPo + ?

    Which particle is released?

    one alpha particle two beta particles

    one alpha and one beta particle

    one high-energy photon

    A

    How can a scientist assess whether a pure niobium (Nb) sample is responsible for contaminating the lab with radioactivity?

    Test the niobium sample to see whether it now contains other elements.

    Test the niobium sample for the presence of niobium oxide compounds.

    Heat the niobium, and see if the level of radioactivity in

    the lab increases.

    Place the niobium under pressure, and see if the level of radioactivity in the lab increases.

    A

    An isotope undergoes radioactive decay by emitting radiation that has a -1 charge. What other characteristic does the radiation have?

    some shielding required

    no mass large mass

    high penetrating power

    A

    An isotope undergoes radioactive decay. The new isotope that forms has an atomic number that is 2 less than the original isotope's.

    Which kind of decay has occurred, and how do you know?

    alpha decay because alpha particles have a large mass

    beta decay because beta particles can have negative charge

    alpha decay because alpha particles have two protons and two neutrons

    gamma decay because gamma rays are photons

    B

    In alpha decay, alpha particles are ejected from the nucleus. Which equation represents alpha decay?

    A

    Sets with similar terms

    Chapter 25.1-Nuclear radiation vocabulary and…

    8 terms eligladnick1

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