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    an ecosystem has experienced a flood. which type of plants would you expect to see growing first after the flood? shrubs lichen small annual plants pine and oak trees

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    Succession and Extinction Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Ecological Succession is best described as, After a 5.1 earthquake, Mt. St. Helens erupted sending hot ash and pumice west, south, and east sides of the mtn.. This melted snow and ice at the top of the volcano and created volcanic mudflows. The type of change seen in the ecosystem around Mt St Helens after it erupted was...., After 51 different wildfires started in Yellowstone Park, 794,000 acres of park were affected..this included about 24 percent of the whitebark pine , pine stands, and other plants and animals....the type of change seen in the ecosystem that were affected by these fires in Yellowstone Park? and more.

    Succession and Extinction

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    Ecological Succession is best described as

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    it always occurs in a predictable pattern

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    After a 5.1 earthquake, Mt. St. Helens erupted sending hot ash and pumice west, south, and east sides of the mtn.. This melted snow and ice at the top of the volcano and created volcanic mudflows. The type of change seen in the ecosystem around Mt St Helens after it erupted was....

    Click card to see definition 👆

    primary succession

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/18 Created by Valerie_Martin7

    Terms in this set (18)

    Ecological Succession is best described as

    it always occurs in a predictable pattern

    After a 5.1 earthquake, Mt. St. Helens erupted sending hot ash and pumice west, south, and east sides of the mtn.. This melted snow and ice at the top of the volcano and created volcanic mudflows. The type of change seen in the ecosystem around Mt St Helens after it erupted was....

    primary succession

    After 51 different wildfires started in Yellowstone Park, 794,000 acres of park were affected..this included about 24 percent of the whitebark pine , pine stands, and other plants and animals....the type of change seen in the ecosystem that were affected by these fires in Yellowstone Park?

    secondary succession

    the role of pioneer species in primary succession is

    to create the soil

    What is most likely to result immediately after a rainforest in Brazil is clear-cut?

    secondary succession

    Why are lichens a good pioneer species after a volcanic eruption?

    they are able to grow on bare rock

    After an ecosystem has experienced a flood, which types of plants would you expect to see growing first after the flood?

    small annual plants

    What disturbances would result in primary succession?

    the formation of Surtsey, a volcanic island off of the southern coast of Iceland

    What could result in secondary succession?

    an introduced species that devastates native plants as it feeds

    clear cutting

    could cause secondary succession

    How does conservation affect biodiversity?

    it helps to preserve biodiversity

    poaching and habitat loss

    are a threat to biodiversity

    Rhinos have decreased to near extinction. How would they be classified under the Endangered Species Act?

    endangered

    In one species of bird, there are three varieties of feather color...this is an example of....

    genetic diversity

    A hunter illegally kills a wolf in Yellowstone National Park and attempts to bring the wolf's skull back to Florida. The law that the hunter is violating is ....

    the Lacey Act

    Rhinos are being poached at a rate of two or three a week in Africat and Asia. Which type of diversity is being lost as the population of rhinos becomes very small?

    genetic diversity

    How could biodiversity affect humans?

    it may lead to the loss of potential medicines, foods, and products

    Primary succession is most likely caused by

    volcanic eruption

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    Verified questions

    BIOLOGY

    Calculate how long it will take for a sound wave to pass through a window if the speed of sound through glass is 5,640 m/s and the window is 1-cm thick. Use the following equation: time = distance/ speed.

    Verified answer BIOLOGY

    The age of rocks of volcanic origin can be estimated with isotopes of argon

    40\left(\mathrm{Ar}^{40}\right)

    40(Ar 40 ) and potassium

    40\left(\mathrm{K}^{40}\right).

    40(K 40 ). \mathrm{K}^{40} K 40 decays into \mathrm{Ar}^{40} Ar 40

    over time. If a mineral that contains potassium is buried under the right circumstances, argon forms and is trapped. Since argon is driven off when the mineral is heated to very high temperatures, rocks of volcanic origin do not contain argon when they are formed. The amount of argon found in such rocks can therefore be used to determine the age of the rock. Assume that a sample of volcanic rock contains

    0.00047 \%\ \mathrm{K} 40.

    0.00047% K40. The sample also contains

    0.000079 \%\ \mathrm{Ar}^{40}.

    0.000079% Ar 40

    . How old is the rock? (The decay rate of

    \mathrm{K}^{40} K 40 to \mathrm{Ar}^{40} Ar 40 is

    Source : quizlet.com

    Secondary succession

    Secondary succession

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Jump to navigation Jump to search

    An example of Secondary Succession by stages:

    1. A stable deciduous forest community.

    2. A disturbance, such as a fire, starts.

    3. The fire destroys the vegetation.

    4. The fire leaves behind empty, but not destroyed soil.

    5. Grasses and other herbaceous plants grow back first.

    6. Small bushes and trees begin to colonize the public area.

    7. Fast-growing evergreen trees and bamboo trees develop to their fullest, while shade-tolerant trees develop in the understory.

    8. The short-lived and shade-intolerant evergreen trees die as the larger deciduous trees overtop them. The ecosystem is now back to a similar state to where it began.

    Secondary succession ecological succession of a plant's life. As opposed to the first, primary succession, secondary succession is a process started by an event (e.g. forest fire, harvesting, hurricane, etc.) that reduces an already established ecosystem (e.g. a forest or a wheat field) to a smaller population of species, and as such secondary succession occurs on preexisting soil whereas primary succession usually occurs in a place lacking soil. Many factors can affect secondary succession, such as trophic interaction, initial composition, and competition-colonization trade-offs.[1] The factors that control the increase in abundance of a species during succession may be determined mainly by seed production and dispersal, micro climate; landscape structure (habitat patch size and distance to outside seed sources);[1] bulk density, pH, and soil texture (sand and clay).[2]

    Simply put, secondary succession is the ecological succession that occurs after the initial succession has been disrupted and some plants and animals still exist. It is usually faster than primary succession

    Soil is already present

    Seeds, roots, and underground vegetative organs of plants may still survive in the soil.

    Contents

    1 Examples 1.1 Imperata

    1.2 Oak and hickory forest

    2 Post-fire succession

    2.1 Soil 2.2 Vegetation 3 References

    Examples[edit]

    Imperata[edit]

    grasslands are caused by human activities such as logging, forest clearing for shifting cultivation, agriculture and grazing, and also by frequent fires. The latter is a frequent result of human interference.[3] However, when not maintained by frequent fires and human disturbances, they regenerate naturally and speedily to secondary young forest. The time of succession in grassland (for example in Samboja Lestari area), has the highest coverage but it becomes less dominant from the fourth year onwards. While decreases, the percentage of shrubs and young trees clearly increases with time. In the burned plots, sp., and . strongly increase with the age of regeneration, but these species are commonly found in the secondary forest.[4]

    Soil properties change during secondary succession in Imperata grassland area. The effects of secondary succession on soil are strongest in the A-horizon (0–10 cm), where an increase in carbon stock, N, and C/N ratio, and a decrease in bulk density and pH are observed. Soil carbon stocks also increase upon secondary succession from grassland to secondary forest.[2]

    Secondary succession in -dominated grassland

    Oak and hickory forest[edit]

    A classic example of secondary succession occurs in oak and hickory forests cleared by wildfire. Wildfires will burn most vegetation and kill those animals unable to flee the area. Their nutrients, however, are returned to the ground in the form of ash. Thus, even when areas are devoid of life due to severe fires, the area will soon be ready for new life to take hold. Before the fire, the vegetation was dominated by tall trees with access to the major plant energy resource: sunlight. Their height gave them access to sunlight while also shading the ground and other low-lying species. After the fire, though, these trees are no longer dominant. Thus, the first plants to grow back are usually annual plants followed within a few years by quickly growing and spreading grasses and other pioneer species. Due to, at least in part, changes in the environment brought on by the growth of the grasses and other species, over many years, shrubs will emerge along with small pine, oak, and hickory trees. These organisms are called intermediate species. Eventually, over 150 years, the forest will reach its equilibrium point where species composition is no longer changing and resembles the community before the fire. This equilibrium state is referred to as the climax community, which will remain stable until the next disturbance.[5]

    Post-fire succession[edit]

    Further information: Fire ecology

    Source : en.wikipedia.org

    Ecological succession

    Succession as progressive change in an ecological community. Primary vs. secondary succession. The idea of a climax community.

    Community structure & diversity

    Ecological succession

    Succession as progressive change in an ecological community. Primary vs. secondary succession. The idea of a climax community.

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    Key points

    Succession is a series of progressive changes in the composition of an ecological community over time.

    In primary succession, newly exposed or newly formed rock is colonized by living things for the first time.

    In secondary succession, an area previously occupied by living things is disturbed—disrupted—then recolonized following the disturbance.

    Introduction

    Have you ever looked at a landscape with a complex, diverse community of plants and animals—such as a forest—and wondered how it came to be? Once upon a time, that land must have been empty rock, yet today, it supports a rich ecological community consisting of populations of different species that live together and interact with one another. Odds are, that didn't happen overnight!

    Ecologists have a strong interest in understanding how communities form and change over time. In fact, they have spent a lot of time observing how complex communities, like forests, arise from empty land or bare rock. They study, for example, sites where volcanic eruptions, glacier retreats, or wildfires have taken place, clearing land or exposing rock.

    In studying these sites over time, ecologists have seen gradual processes of change in ecological communities. In many cases, a community arising in a disturbed area goes through a series of shifts in composition, often over the course of many years. This series of changes is called ecological succession.

    Succession

    Ecological succession is a series of progressive changes in the species that make up a community over time. Ecologists usually identify two types of succession, which differ in their starting points:

    In primary succession, newly exposed or newly formed rock is colonized by living things for the first time.

    In secondary succession, an area that was previously occupied by living things is disturbed, then re-colonized following the disturbance.

    Succession often involves a progression from communities with lower species diversity—which may be less stable—to communities with higher species diversity—which may be more stable

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    —though this is not a universal rule.

    Primary succession and pioneer species

    Primary succession occurs when new land is formed or bare rock is exposed, providing a habitat that can be colonized for the first time.

    For example, primary succession may take place following the eruption of volcanoes, such as those on the Big Island of Hawaii. As lava flows into the ocean, new rock is formed. On the Big Island, approximately 32 acres of land are added each year. What happens to this land during primary succession?

    First, weathering and other natural forces break down the substrate, rock, enough for the establishment of certain hearty plants and lichens with few soil requirements, known as pioneer species, see image below. These species help to further break down the mineral-rich lava into soil where other, less hardy species can grow and eventually replace the pioneer species. In addition, as these early species grow and die, they add to an ever-growing layer of decomposing organic material and contribute to soil formation.

    Photograph of succulent plants colonizing lava during primary succession on Maui.

    During primary succession on lava in Maui, Hawaii, succulent plants are pioneer species. Image credit: Community ecology: Figure 17 by OpenStax College, Biology, CC BY 4.0; work by Forest and Kim Starr

    This process repeats multiple times during succession. At each stage, new species move into an area, often due to changes to the environment made by the preceding species, and may replace their predecessors. At some point, the community may reach a relatively stable state and stop changing in composition. However, it's unclear if there is always—or even usually—a stable endpoint to succession, as we'll discuss later in the article.

    Secondary succession

    In secondary succession, a previously occupied area is re-colonized following a disturbance that kills much or all of its community.

    A classic example of secondary succession occurs in oak and hickory forests cleared by wildfire. Wildfires will burn most vegetation and kill animals unable to flee the area. Their nutrients, however, are returned to the ground in the form of ash. Since a disturbed area already has nutrient-rich soil, it can be recolonized much more quickly than the bare rock of primary succession.

    Before a fire, the vegetation of an oak and hickory forest would have been dominated by tall trees. Their height would have helped them acquire solar energy, while also shading the ground and other low-lying species. After the fire, however, these trees do not spring right back up. Instead, the first plants to grow back are usually annual plants—plants that live a single year—followed within a few years by quickly growing and spreading grasses. The early colonizers can be classified as pioneer species, as they are in primary succession.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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