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    Behavioral Artistry: Examining the Relationship Between the Interpersonal Skills and Effective Practice Repertoires of Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioners

    This study investigated interpersonal skills associated with the concept of behavioral artistry (BA), a repertoire of practitioner behaviors including care

    Original Paper Open Access

    Published: 24 May 2019

    Behavioral Artistry: Examining the Relationship Between the Interpersonal Skills and Effective Practice Repertoires of Applied Behavior Analysis Practitioners

    Kevin Callahan, Richard M. Foxx, Adam Swierczynski, Xing Aerts, Smita Mehta, Mary-Ellen McComb, Susan M. Nichols, Gabrielle Segal, Andrew Donald & Rachita Sharma

    volume 49, pages

    3557–3570 (2019)Cite this article

    11k Accesses 11 Citations 6 Altmetric Metrics details

    A Correction to this article was published on 28 August 2019

    This article has been updated

    Abstract

    This study investigated interpersonal skills associated with the concept of behavioral artistry (BA), a repertoire of practitioner behaviors including care, attentiveness, and creativity, among others, associated with the effective delivery of applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment. Survey results indicated parents of children with autism preferred BA descriptors for ABA therapists over non-BA descriptors. A separate survey of 212 university students on a standardized personality assessment revealed students majoring and/or working in the field of ABA had lower levels of BA than those in other human services professions. Practitioners with higher BA scores were observed and rated more positively in their delivery of ABA for children with autism. Implications for training/supervising effective ABA practitioners within a BA model are discussed.

    The evidence for the long-term effectiveness of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is vast (Foxx 2016). Individuals with ASD have been educated and treated using ABA for more than five decades (Ferster and DeMyer 1961, 1962; Lovaas et al. 1965; Wolf et al. 1964). Ten years ago, there were more than 1000 peer-reviewed scientific articles documenting ABA successes in autism (Foxx 2008), and that number has grown exponentially since (Volkmar 2015). Specific ABA interventions are considered evidence-based practices (EBPs) in autism (National Autism Center 2015; Peters-Scheffer et al. 2011; Schreibman et al. 2015; Smith 2001, 2013; Wong et al. 2015) and have been socially validated (Callahan et al. 2008, 2017).

    ABA uses methods derived from scientifically established principles of behavior to improve the human condition (Baer et al. 1968; Cooper et al. 2007). It has been applied successfully to a range of populations and areas besides autism, including intellectual disabilities, all forms of education, business, mental health, counseling, medicine, and child abuse (Holdsambeck and Pennypacker 2016). Nevertheless, the incidence of ASD continues to increase and the majority of persons entering the field of ABA work with individuals with this disorder (Leaf et al. 2016). Over time, the conclusion that ABA is the treatment of choice (Schreibman 2005) and the gold standard of intervention for individuals with autism has become commonplace (Foxx 2016; Maurice et al. 1996, 2001; Mayville and Mulick 2011; Myers and Johnson 2007).

    Despite the widespread acceptance of ABA as effective in the treatment and education of ASD, it has not escaped criticism (Schreibman 2005). Appraisals of ABA have suggested that its jargonistic language may be seen by others as abrasive, harsh, and unpleasant (Critchfield et al. 2017; Foxx 1996, 1998) and that ABA’s “drills and routines are cruel, and its aims misguided” (Devita-Raeburn 2016). Consumers often view the highly structured nature of some ABA treatment procedures as overly “mechanical,” and children’s responses to ABA’s Discrete Trial Training (DTT) protocols have been called robotic, prompt dependent, and lacking in both spontaneity and generalization of treatment effects (Schreibman 2005). While many of these and other critiques have been addressed and redressed (e.g., Foxx 2016; Maurice et al. 1996; Morris 2009), lingering related issues may be responsible for lower levels of social validity for the ABA approach when compared to other autism treatment models (Callahan et al. 2010). An important implication is that treatments having goals, methods, and/or outcomes that are not fully supported by their consumers may be implemented less frequently and/or less effectively (Smith 2013; Wolf 1978).

    In a recent review of the skills needed for ABA practitioners to conduct effective programming for individuals with ASD, Leaf et al. (2016) identified intervention components related to what they describe as a “progressive” and “responsive” approach to the delivery of ABA services. These skills highlight interventionists’ abilities to be flexible and analytical in the implementation of individualized protocols and practices (for example, while using established EBPs such as DTT and functional analysis), rather than strictly adhering to today’s frequently observed “recipe-based” ABA approach (Leaf et al. 2016, p. 721). According to Leaf and colleagues, the pervasive use of ABA in autism treatment has resulted in changes in its scope and focus, and behavioral interventions have become potentially less effective:

    A danger inherent in any large scale, quickly growing area is a loss of focus on meaningful purpose, process, and outcomes. In the field of ABA, this might translate into dogmatic lack of attention to clinical significance, selection of impractical procedures, ritualistic data-collection, over-abundant use of off-putting, dehumanizing terminology, disregard of logistical realities, and insensitivity to consumer issues (Leaf et al. 2016, p. 728).

    Source : link.springer.com

    Module 2B Quiz Flashcards

    RBT: False Beliefs about Staff/ Training/ Certification. Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

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    According to the Leaf and colleague's study, what was the correlation between mock exam scores and implementation of DTT?

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    No relationship and moderate positive relationship.

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    One potential problem with the addition of assistant trainers in the RBT certification process is the assistant trainer could be another

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    RBT

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    Evaluation of sex differences in preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorder enrolled in the study to explore early development

    Request PDF | Evaluation of sex differences in preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorder enrolled in the study to explore early development | Background and aims Research in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has found sex-based differences... | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate

    HomeNeurodevelopmental DisordersDevelopmental PediatricsDevelopmental DisordersMedicinePediatricsAsd

    Article

    Evaluation of sex differences in preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorder enrolled in the study to explore early development

    May 2021Research in Developmental Disabilities 112(2):103897

    DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2021.103897

    Project: Early Identification of Autism and Developmental Disabilities

    Authors: Lisa D Wiggins

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Eric Rubenstein Boston University Gayle C Windham

    California Department of Public Health

    B. Barger

    Georgia State University

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    To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

    Abstract

    Background and aims Research in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has found sex-based differences in behavioral, developmental, and diagnostic outcomes. These findings have not been consistently replicated in preschool-aged children. We examined sex-based differences in a large sample of 2–5-year-old children with ASD symptoms in a multi-site community-based study. Methods and procedures Based on a comprehensive evaluation, children were classified as having ASD (n = 1480, 81.55 % male) or subthreshold ASD characteristics (n = 593, 70.15 % male). Outcomes were behavior problems, developmental abilities, performance on ASD screening and diagnostic tests, and parent-reported developmental conditions diagnosed before study enrollment. Outcomes and results We found no statistically significant sex differences in behavioral functioning, developmental functioning, performance on an ASD screening test, and developmental conditions diagnosed before study enrollment among children with ASD or subthreshold ASD characteristics. Males in both study groups had more parent reported restricted interests and repetitive behaviors than females, but these differences were small in magnitude and not clinically meaningful. Conclusions and implications Preschool males and females who showed risk for ASD were more similar than different in the outcomes assessed in our study. Future research could examine sex-based differences in ASD phenotypes as children age.

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    Source : www.researchgate.net

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