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    according to the central dogma, what is the intermediate molecule involved in the flow of information in a cell that should go in the blank? dna → ________ → proteins

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    Intro to gene expression (central dogma) (article)

    How genes in DNA can provide instructions for proteins. The central dogma of molecular biology: DNA → RNA → protein.

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    Intro to gene expression (central dogma)

    How genes in DNA can provide instructions for proteins. The central dogma of molecular biology: DNA → RNA → protein.

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    Overview: Gene expression

    DNA is the genetic material of all organisms on Earth. When DNA is transmitted from parents to children, it can determine some of the children's characteristics (such as their eye color or hair color). But how does the sequence of a DNA molecule actually affect a human or other organism's features? For example, how did the sequence of nucleotides (As, Ts, Cs, and Gs) in the DNA of Mendel's pea plants determine the color of their flowers?

    Genes specify functional products (such as proteins)

    A DNA molecule isn't just a long, boring string of nucleotides. Instead, it's divided up into functional units called genes. Each gene provides instructions for a functional product, that is, a molecule needed to perform a job in the cell. In many cases, the functional product of a gene is a protein. For example, Mendel's flower color gene provides instructions for a protein that helps make colored molecules (pigments) in flower petals.

    Diagram of how a gene can dictate a phenotype (observable feature) of an organism. The flower color gene that Mendel studied consists of a stretch of DNA found on a chromosome. The DNA has a particular sequence; part of it, shown in this diagram, is 5'-GTAAATCG-3' (upper strand), paired with the complementary sequence 3'-CATTTAGC-5' (lower strand). The DNA of the gene specifies production of a protein that helps make pigments. When the protein is present and functional, pigments are produced, and the flowers of a plant have a purple color.

    Image based on experimental data reported by Hellens et al.

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    and on similar figure in Reece et al.

    ^2 2 squared .

    The functional products of most known genes are proteins, or, more accurately, polypeptides. Polypeptide is just another word for a chain of amino acids. Although many proteins consist of a single polypeptide, some are made up of multiple polypeptides. Genes that specify polypeptides are called protein-coding genes.

    Not all genes specify polypeptides. Instead, some provide instructions to build functional RNA molecules, such as the transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs that play roles in translation. [More about protein-coding and RNA genes]

    How does the DNA sequence of a gene specify a particular protein?

    Many genes provide instructions for building polypeptides. How, exactly, does DNA direct the construction of a polypeptide? This process involves two major steps: transcription and translation.

    In transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied to make an RNA molecule. This step is called transcription because it involves rewriting, or transcribing, the DNA sequence in a similar RNA "alphabet." In eukaryotes, the RNA molecule must undergo processing to become a mature messenger RNA (mRNA).

    In translation, the sequence of the mRNA is decoded to specify the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. The name translation reflects that the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA sequence must be translated into the completely different "language" of amino acids.

    Simplified schematic of central dogma, showing the sequences of the molecules involved.

    The two strands of DNA have the following sequences:

    5'-ATGATCTCGTAA-3' 3'-TACTAGAGCATT-5'

    Transcription of one of the strands of DNA produces an mRNA that nearly matches the other strand of DNA in sequence. However, due to a biochemical difference between DNA and RNA, the Ts of DNA are replaced with Us in the mRNA. The mRNA sequence is:

    5'-AUGAUCUCGUAA-5'

    Translation involves reading the mRNA nucleotides in groups of three; each group specifies an amino acid (or provides a stop signal indicating that translation is finished).

    3'-AUG AUC UCG UAA-5'

    AUG \rightarrow → right arrow Methionine AUC \rightarrow → right arrow Isoleucine UCG \rightarrow → right arrow Serine UAA \rightarrow → right arrow "Stop"

    Polypeptide sequence: (N-terminus) Methionine-Isoleucine-Serine (C-terminus)

    Thus, during expression of a protein-coding gene, information flows from DNA

    \rightarrow → right arrow RNA \rightarrow → right arrow

    protein. This directional flow of information is known as the central dogma of molecular biology. Non-protein-coding genes (genes that specify functional RNAs) are still transcribed to produce an RNA, but this RNA is not translated into a polypeptide. For either type of gene, the process of going from DNA to a functional product is known as gene expression.

    [Why are protein-coding genes expressed in two steps?]

    Transcription

    In transcription, one strand of the DNA that makes up a gene, called the non-coding strand, acts as a template for the synthesis of a matching (complementary) RNA strand by an enzyme called RNA polymerase. This RNA strand is the primary transcript.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

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    A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5′-AGT-3′. What would be the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed?

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    3′-UCA-5′

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    Use the figure to answer the question: (A ---enzymeA B ---enzymeB C ) The figure shows a simple metabolic pathway. According to Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis, how many genes are necessary for this pathway?

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    2

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    A particular triplet of bases in the template strand of DNA is 5′-AGT-3′. What would be the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed?

    3′-UCA-5′

    Use the figure to answer the question: (A ---enzymeA B ---enzymeB C ) The figure shows a simple metabolic pathway. According to Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis, how many genes are necessary for this pathway?

    2

    Use the figure to answer the question: (A ---enzymeA B ---enzymeB C ) If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain that is mutant for the gene-encoding enzyme A would be able to grow on medium supplemented with which of the following nutrient(s)?

    either nutrient B or C

    Use the figure to answer the question: (A ---enzymeA B ---enzymeB C ) If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain mutant for the gene encoding enzyme B would be able to grow on medium supplemented with which of the following nutrient(s)?

    nutrient C only

    Use a translation table to answer the following question. Which of the following sequences of nucleotides are possible in the template strand of DNA that would code for the polypeptide sequence Phe-Leu-Ile-Val?

    3′-AAA-GAA-TAA-CAA-5′

    Use a translation table to answer the following question. What amino acid sequence will be generated, based on the following mRNA codon sequence? 5′-AUG-UCU-UCG-UUA-UCC-UUG-3′

    Met-Ser-Ser-Leu-Ser-Leu

    Which of the following processes occurs during transcription?

    RNA is synthesized

    The genetic code is redundant. What is meant by this statement?

    More than one codon can specify the addition of the same amino acid.

    According to the central dogma, what is the intermediate molecule involved in the flow of information in a cell that should go in the blank? DNA → ________ → Proteins

    mRNA

    Which of the following statements best describes the termination of transcription in prokaryotes?

    RNA polymerase transcribes through the terminator sequence, causing the polymerase to separate from the DNA and release the transcript.

    In eukaryotes, there are several different types of RNA polymerase. Which type is involved in transcription of mRNA for a globin protein?

    RNA polymerase II

    Which of the following processes occurs in eukaryotic gene expression?

    A cap is added to the 5′ end of the mRNA.

    Which one of the following statements about RNA processing is correct?

    Ribozymes may function in RNA splicing.

    A particular triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is AAA. The anticodon on the tRNA that binds the mRNA codon is ________.

    AAA

    What would be the consequence of a mutation in a bacterial cell that produces a defective aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that attaches a lysine instead of the normal phenylalanine to tRNAs with the anticodon AAA?

    Proteins in the cell will include lysine instead of phenylalanine at amino acid positions specified by the codon UUU.

    What is the function of the release factor during translation in eukaryotes?

    It binds to the stop codon in the A site in place of a tRNA.

    During the elongation phase of translation, which site in the ribosome represents the location where a codon is being read?

    A site

    Which one of the following structures, if missing, would usually prevent translation from starting?

    AUG codon

    Which of the following types of mutation, resulting in an error in the mRNA just after the AUG start of translation, is likely to have the most serious effect on the polypeptide product?

    a deletion of two nucleotides

    Which of the following statements correctly describes the effect a nonsense mutation would have on a gene?

    It introduces a premature stop codon into the mRNA

    How might a single base substitution in the sequence of a gene affect the amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by the gene?

    Only a single amino acid could change, because the reading frame would be unaffected.

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    Central Dogma

    Video explaining Central Dogma for Biology. This is one of many videos provided by Clutch Prep to prepare you to succeed in your college classes.

    Ch. 15 - Gene ExpressionWorksheetSee all chapters

    Ch. 1 - Introduction to Biology

    Ch. 2 - Chemistry Ch. 3 - Water

    Ch. 4 - Biomolecules

    Ch. 5 - Cell Components

    Ch. 6 - The Membrane

    Ch. 7 - Energy and Metabolism

    Ch. 8 - Respiration

    Ch. 9 - Photosynthesis

    Ch. 10 - Cell Signaling

    Ch. 11 - Cell Division

    Ch. 12 - Meiosis

    Ch. 13 - Mendelian Genetics

    Ch. 14 - DNA Synthesis

    Ch. 15 - Gene Expression

    Ch. 16 - Regulation of Expression

    Ch. 17 - Viruses

    Ch. 18 - Biotechnology

    Ch. 19 - Genomics

    Ch. 20 - Development

    Ch. 21 - Evolution by Natural Selection

    Ch. 22 - Evolution of Populations

    Ch. 23 - Speciation

    Ch. 24 - History of Life on Earth

    Ch. 25 - Phylogeny

    Ch. 26 - Prokaryotes

    Ch. 28 - Protists Ch. 29 - Plants Ch. 30 - Fungi

    Ch. 31 - Overview of Animals

    Ch. 32 - Invertebrates

    Ch. 33 - Vertebrates

    Ch. 34 - Plant Anatomy

    Ch. 35 - Vascular Plant Transport

    Ch. 36 - Soil

    Ch. 37 - Plant Reproduction

    Ch. 38 - Plant Sensation and Response

    Ch. 39 - Animal Form and Function

    Ch. 40 - Digestive System

    Ch. 41 - Circulatory System

    Ch. 42 - Immune System

    Ch. 43 - Osmoregulation and Excretion

    Ch. 44 - Endocrine System

    Ch. 45 - Animal Reproduction

    Ch. 46 - Nervous System

    Ch. 47 - Sensory Systems

    Ch. 48 - Muscle Systems

    Ch. 49 - Ecology

    Ch. 50 - Animal Behavior

    Ch. 51 - Population Ecology

    Ch. 52 - Community Ecology

    Ch. 53 - Ecosystems

    Ch. 54 - Conservation Biology

    Central Dogma

    See all sections Sections Central Dogma

    Introduction to Transcription

    Steps of Transcription

    Eukaryotic RNA Processing and Splicing

    Introduction to Types of RNA

    Genetic Code

    Introduction to Translation

    Steps of Translation

    Post-Translational Modification

    Review of Transcription vs. Translation

    Mutations Learn

    Next SectionIntroduction to Transcription

    Concept #1: Central Dogma

    Concept #1: Central Dogma

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    Practice: According to the central dogma, what is the intermediate molecule involved in the flow of information in a cell that should go in the blank? DNA → ________ → Proteins

    A Ribosome. B rRNA. C mRNA. D tRNA. Check Answer Show Answer

    Practice: The full process by which genotype becomes expressed as phenotype is called:

    A Transcription. B Translation. C DNA Replication. D Gene expression. Check Answer Show Answer

    Next SectionIntroduction to Transcription

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