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    according to the article, which of the following characteristics fit standard oil? check all that apply. it practiced ruthless business techniques. it helped its competitors stay in business. it dominated the oil market. it controlled the transportation of oil. it successfully stopped journalists from writing about it.

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    get according to the article, which of the following characteristics fit standard oil? check all that apply. it practiced ruthless business techniques. it helped its competitors stay in business. it dominated the oil market. it controlled the transportation of oil. it successfully stopped journalists from writing about it. from EN Bilgi.

    Constitutional Rights Foundation

    CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS FOUNDATIONBill of Right in ActionSpring 2000 (16:2)Wealth and PowerBRIA 16:2 Home | King Leopold's "Heart of Darkness" | Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Monopoly | United States v. Microsoft  Ro, Following the Civil War, few laws limited how businesses went about making money. In building the giant Standard Oil monopoly, John D. Rockefeller made up his own rules.

    BRIA 16 2 b Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Monopoly

    John lived in an age when owners of industries operated without much interference from government. Even the income tax did not exist. Rockefeller built an oil monopoly by ruthlessly eliminating most of his competitors. This made him the richest man in the world. But he spent his retirement years giving away most of his money. The unlikely match between "Devil Bill" and Eliza Rockefeller produced a son who would paradoxically become the most hated and admired man in America.

    The Standard Oil Monopoly

    Shortly before the Civil War, Rockefeller and a partner established a shipping company in Cleveland, Ohio. The company made much money during the war. In 1863, he and his partner invested in another business that refined crude oil from Pennsylvania into kerosene for illuminating lamps.

    By 1870, Rockefeller and new partners were operating two oil refineries in Cleveland, then the major oil refining center of the country. The partners incorporated (under a charter issued by the state of Ohio) and called their business the Standard Oil Company.

    To give Standard Oil an edge over its competitors, Rockefeller secretly arranged for discounted shipping rates from railroads. The railroads carried crude oil to Standard's refineries in Cleveland and kerosene to the big city markets. Many argued that as "common carriers" railroads should not discriminate in their shipping charges. But small businesses and farmers were often forced to pay higher rates than big shippers like Standard Oil.

    The oil industry in the late 1800s often experienced sudden booms and busts, which led to wildly fluctuating prices and price wars among the refiners. More than anything else, Rockefeller wanted to control the unpredictable oil market to make his profits more dependable.

    In 1871, Rockefeller helped form a secret alliance of railroads and refiners. They planned to control freight rates and oil prices by cooperating with one another. The deal collapsed when the railroads backed out. But before this happened, Rockefeller used the threat of this deal to intimidate more than 20 Cleveland refiners to sell out to Standard Oil at bargain prices. When the so-called "Cleveland Massacre" ended in March 1872, Standard controlled 25 percent of the U.S. oil industry.

    Rockefeller saw Standard Oil's takeover of the Cleveland refiners as inevitable. He said it illustrated "the battle of the new idea of cooperation against competition." In his mind, large industrial combinations, more commonly known as monopolies, would replace individualism and competition in business.

    Rockefeller planned to buy out as many other oil refineries as he could. To do this, he often used hardball tactics. In 1874, Standard started acquiring new oil pipeline networks. This enabled the company to cut off the flow of crude oil to refineries Rockefeller wanted to buy. When a rival company attempted to build a competing pipeline across Pennsylvania, Standard Oil bought up land along the way to block it. Rockefeller also resorted to outright bribery of Pennsylvania legislators. In the end, Rockefeller made a deal with the other company, which gave Standard Oil ownership of nearly all the oil pipelines in the nation.

    By 1880, Standard Oil owned or controlled 90 percent of the U.S. oil refining business, making it the first great industrial monopoly in the world. But in achieving this position, Standard violated its Ohio charter, which prohibited the company from doing business outside the state. Rockefeller and his associates decided to move Standard Oil from Cleveland to New York City and to form a new type of business organization called a "trust."

    Under the new arrangement (done in secret), nine men, including Rockefeller, held "in trust" stock in Standard Oil of Ohio and 40 other companies that it wholly or partly owned. The trustees directed the management of the entire enterprise and distributed dividends (profits) to all stockholders.

    When the Standard Oil Trust was formed in 1882, it produced most of the world's lamp kerosene, owned 4,000 miles of pipelines, and employed 100,000 workers. Rockefeller often paid above-average wages to his employees, but he strongly opposed any attempt by them to join labor unions. Rockefeller himself owned one-third of Standard Oil's stock, worth about $20 million.

    During the 1880s, Standard Oil divided the United States into 11 districts for selling kerosene and other oil products. To stimulate demand, the company sold or even gave away cheap lamps and stoves. It also created phony companies that appeared to compete with Standard Oil, their real owner. When independent companies tried to compete, Standard Oil quickly cut prices--sometimes below cost--to drive them out of business. Then Standard raised prices to recoup its losses.

    Much of the trust's effort went into killing off competition. But Standard Oil while Rockefeller was in command also usually provided good quality products at fairly reasonable prices. Rockefeller often declared that the whole purpose of Standard Oil was to supply "the poor man's light."

    The Antitrust Movement

    By 1900, the Standard Oil Trust had expanded from its original base in the East to new oil regions further west. At the same time, a wave of anti-monopoly sentiment swept the United States. Farmer organizations, labor unions, muckraking journalists, and many politicians attacked such combinations as the sugar and tobacco trusts. But they especially targeted the "mother trust," Standard Oil.

    Source : www.crf-usa.org

    Economics Assignment Market Structures Flashcards

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    According to this passage, what was Roosevelts real reason for breaking up standard oil

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    he feared the control of standard oil had in the market

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    according to this article which of the following characteristics for standard oil check all that apply

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    it practiced ruthless business techniques, it dominated the oil market, and it controls the transportation of oil

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    1/5 Created by wendy-jo_marie

    Terms in this set (5)

    According to this passage, what was Roosevelts real reason for breaking up standard oil

    he feared the control of standard oil had in the market

    according to this article which of the following characteristics for standard oil check all that apply

    it practiced ruthless business techniques, it dominated the oil market, and it controls the transportation of oil

    Which best summarizes Ida Tarbell's assessment of standard oil

    The company was ruthless in its drive to eliminate competition

    think about standard oil's business practices in 3 to 4 sentences explain why there was such a strong negative feeling towards the standard oil monopoly use details from the lesson and reading

    Standard oil was taken advantage of the incentives that were being given to growing businesses at the time. The company was awesome and share in that competition cannot continue by loving prices so much that other producers could not continue to make a profit. With little competition remaining in the market, consumers would be forced to pay the price is set for standard oil.

    Think about what happened to standard oil. Write a paragraph in which explain whether or not you agree with the actions taken by the government to interfere with the growth of standard Think about what happened to standard oil. Write a paragraph in which explain whether or not you agree with the actions taken by the government to interfere with the growth of standard oil as a monopoly. Use details from the lesson and reading.

    the United States government was correct in interfering with the growth of standard oil. Not only was the company taken advantage of existing situations, but eventually it would have controlled the oil market entirely

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    Ida Tarbell: The Woman Who Took On Standard Oil

    At the end of the 19th century, Ida Tarbell became one of the most famous "muckraking" journalists in America, thanks largely to her investigation of the

    Ida Tarbell: The Woman Who Took On Standard Oil

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    January 6, 2022 • Emergence of Modern America 1890-1930, Easton, Literature, Social Movements, Women

    Ida M. Tarbell, ca. 1905-1945 - Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Harris & Ewing Collection

    by Andy Piascik

    Muckraking journalism emerged at the end of the 19th century largely in response to the excesses of the Gilded Age, and Ida Tarbell was one of the most famous of the muckrakers. Born in 1857 in a log cabin in Hatch Hollow, Pennsylvania, Tarbell’s first dream was to be a scientist. Science was a field largely closed to women, however, and she instead pursued teaching, a profession deemed more suitable for a woman.

    In 1883 she met Dr. Thomas Flood, editor of the Chautauquan, a magazine published in nearby Meadville, Pennsylvania. Flood was about to retire his position and he asked Tarbell to assist him for a few months while he searched for a successor. She accepted and ended up working at the Chautauquan as a writer and editor for six years.

    IdaTarbell, ca. 1904 – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

    Writing became Tarbell’s passion. One of her biographers, Kathleen Brady, wrote of Tarbell that “the sight of her work in type was like magic which dispelled forever dreams of botany.” Keenly aware of social problems since her days as a teacher, Tarbell wrote about inequality and injustice and encouraged colleagues at the Chautauquan to do likewise.

    In 1890, Tarbell moved to Paris. She had written a series of articles about women of the French Revolution and she went to France to research a projected biography of one of those women, Madame Marie-Jeanne Roland. She supported herself by writing articles about Parisian life for Scribner’s Magazine and other American publications, including several owned by Samuel McClure.

    Tarbell Exposes The Standard Oil Company

    Tarbell never wrote the biography of Roland but she did write biographies of Napoleon Bonaparte and Abraham Lincoln—published shortly after her return to the United States in 1894. She also accepted an offer from McClure to work for his new venture, McClure’s Magazine, where she undertook her most famous work, her expose of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company. Her study of Rockefeller’s practices as he built Standard Oil into one of the world’s largest business monopolies took many years to complete. McClure’s Magazine published it in 19 installments.

    Her work was a sensation and the installments became a two-volume book entitled, The History of the Standard Oil Company, published in 1904. Tarbell meticulously documented the aggressive techniques Standard Oil employed to outmaneuver and, where necessary, roll over whoever got in its way. A short while later, President Theodore Roosevelt used the phrase “muckraker” (from John Bunyan’s The Pilgrim’s Progress) in a speech in reference to Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, and other journalists writing critically about the tremendous power of big business. Tarbell actually objected to the term, for she felt it belittled work she believed to be of historical importance.

    The centerfold of Puck magazine, February 21, 1906, “The Crusaders” by C. Hassman. Comic illustration shows a large group of politicians and journalists as knights on a crusade against graft and corruption, including Ida Tarbell – Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division

    One result largely attributable to Tarbell’s work was a Supreme Court decision in 1911 that found Standard Oil in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The Court found that Standard was an illegal monopoly and ordered it broken into 34 separate companies. Bloodied, Rockefeller and Standard were hardly defeated. Rockefeller maintained huge holdings in all 34 companies and the breakup actually proved enormously profitable. He lived out the rest of his long life with his status as the world’s wealthiest man unblemished.

    Retiring to Easton

    In 1906, not long after her rise to fame, Tarbell purchased a home in Easton, Connecticut. Easton was a farming town and she used the home and its 40-acre spread as a country getaway for the next 18 years while living primarily in New York City. She lectured widely and continued writing for important publications of the time, like the American Magazine, of which she was also co-editor. Among the events she covered were the negotiations in Versailles at the conclusion of World War One.

    In 1924, Tarbell moved permanently to Easton. She was 67 but she kept writing, producing, among other works, an autobiography entitled, All in the Day’s Work. She took ill with pneumonia in December 1943 and died in Bridgeport Hospital on January 6, 1944, at age 86.

    The History of the Standard Oil Company remains a classic of investigative reporting, and Tarbell’s legacy as a someone who took seriously the credo that journalists should “afflict the comfortable and comfort the afflicted” lives on. The house she lived in in Easton became a National Historic Landmark in 1993.

    Source : connecticuthistory.org

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