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    Psychology 330 Personality Theory Chapter 15 Flashcards

    Start studying Psychology 330 Personality Theory Chapter 15. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Psychology 330 Personality Theory Chapter 15

    A pessimistic strategy produces a __________outlook on life, but can also motivate __________

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    negative; goal-seeking behavior

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    Current research suggests that overall happiness has three primary sources. Which of the following answers is NOT one of these sources?

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    one's political ideology

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    A pessimistic strategy produces a __________outlook on life, but can also motivate __________

    negative; goal-seeking behavior

    Current research suggests that overall happiness has three primary sources. Which of the following answers is NOT one of these sources?

    one's political ideology

    From the perspective of cognitive psychology, emotions can be considered a kind of __________, similar to skills such as riding a bike, singing, or shooting basketballs.

    procedural knowledge

    If you tend to believe that personal qualities such as intelligence are unchangeable, then your personal construct in this dimension could be called a/n __________. Conversely, if you believe that things like intelligence and ability can change with time and experience, you probably hold a/n __________.

    entity theory; incremental theory

    If, for example, a player on a sports team reacts explosively and negatively after the coach gives him or her advice, what could be true?

    He or she could be unconsciously pursuing a judgment goal instead of a development goal.

    People high in __________ set standards for themselves and then work hard to attain them. People high in __________ seek the close company of others. People high in __________ put great efforts into seeking prestige and status.

    achievement motivation; affiliation motivation; power motivation

    Research suggests that something much like the ego defense mechanisms, discussed in the context of psychoanalysis, may prevent certain embarrassing stimuli from entering consciousness, even while other aspects of the mind are well aware of and responding to the stimuli. In modern psychological theory, these mechanisms can be referred to as

    perceptual defenses.

    This behavior pattern based on chronic accessibility corresponds with the anxious-ambivalent attachment style described in Chapter 11.

    rejection sensitivity

    What is the system model that is typified by thinking in vivid images and stories, operating at high speed, and being characteristically slow to change?

    experiential

    Which of the following is NOT true of idiographic goals?

    They are assumed to function codependently.

    An Asian American who has just been primed with the image of a dragon is more likely to interpret ambiguous symbols according to ________.

    typical Asian interpretations

    Which statement is true regarding the association between political ideology and happiness?

    Thinking like a conservative reduces negative emotions.

    Laura attends church regularly because she finds personal meaning and spiritual fulfillment in the rituals and discussions. Jeanne attends church regularly because she knows that many influential business leaders from the community also attend that church. Laura and Jeanne have ________.

    different strategies, leading to the same behavior

    According to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ________ is something you think about, whereas a ________ is something you do.

    current concern; personal project

    Mrs. Garcia often invites her family and friends to her house for lunches and parties. She is also involved with the people in her church group and in the Parent-Teacher Association at her child's school. According to McClelland's view of motivations, Mrs. Garcia is high in ________ motivation.

    affiliation

    According to the text, which of the following is an example of the negative consequences associated with rapidly changing emotions?

    Frequent emotional swings cause stress to both the person experiencing them and surrounding others.

    The phrase "seven, plus or minus two" refers to the ________.

    capacity of short-term memory

    According to research and theory about goals, it is most advantageous to have the ability to ________.

    shift between short- and long-term goals

    Which of the following is the typical way that primary goals, as defined by McClelland, are assessed?

    using the Thematic Apperception Test

    According to previous research, women are generally higher than men in affect intensity. This finding may provide evidence for why ________.

    women are more prone to depression compared to men

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    According to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ________ is something you think about, whereas a ________ is something – Let's Answer The World!

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    16 NOVEMBER 2021 BY SETH MIPWORTH

    According to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ________ is something you think about, whereas a ________ is something

    According to distinctions between types of idiographic goals, a ________ is something you think about, whereas a ________ is something you do.

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    Theories of Personality

    Theories of Personality

    By Dr. Saul McLeod, updated 2021

    Summary

    Personality tests date all the way back to the 18th century, when phrenology, measuring bumps on the skull, and physiognomy, analyzing a person’s outer appearance, were used to assess personality (Goldstein & Hershen, 2000).

    Beginning in the late 19th century, Sir Francis Galton, a British polymath (an expert in many fields) estimated the number of adjectives in the English dictionary that described personality. The list was eventually refined by Louis Leon Thurstone to 60 words, and through analyzing roughly 1,300 participants, the list was reduced again to seven common factors (Goldberg, 1993).

    Similarly, British-American psychologist Raymond Cattell developed a Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, a 185 multiple-choice self-report questionnaire used to measure personality in both the clinical and non-clinical settings.

    In the 1980s, after an almost four decade long hiatus, Lewis Goldberg and colleagues (1980) revived Ernest Tupes and Raymond Christal’s (1961) exploration of five major personality traits. Their work done in the 80s extended Tupes and Christal’s work by redefining the five key factors as openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (commonly abbreviated as the acronym OCEAN). This new model greatly contributed to the wide acceptance and increase in popularity the five-factor model received.

    What is this thing we call personality? Consider the following definitions, what do they have in common?

    "Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his characteristics behavior and thought" (Allport, 1961, p. 28).

    “The characteristics or blend of characteristics that make a person unique” (Weinberg & Gould, 1999).

    Both definitions emphasize the uniqueness of the individual and consequently adopt an idiographic view.

    The idiographic view assumes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. It tends to use case studies for information gathering.

    The nomothetic view, on the other hand, emphasizes comparability among individuals. This viewpoint sees traits as having the same psychological meaning in everyone.

    This approach tends to use self-report personality questions, factor analysis, etc. People differ in their positions along a continuum in the same set of traits.

    We must also consider the influence and interaction of nature (biology, genetics, etc.) and nurture (the environment, upbringing) with respect to personality development.

    Trait theories of personality imply personality is biologically based, whereas state theories such as Bandura's (1977) Social Learning Theory emphasize the role of nurture and environmental influence.

    Sigmund Freud's psychodynamic theory of personality assumes there is an interaction between nature (innate instincts) and nurture (parental influences).

    Freud's Theory

    Personality involves several factors:

    – Instinctual drives – food, sex, aggression

    – Unconscious processes

    – Early childhood influences (re: psychosexual stages) – especially the parents

    Personality development depends on the interplay of instinct and environment during the first five years of life.

    Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development. Personality and mental health problems in adulthood can usually be traced back to the first five years.

    Psychosexual Development

    People – including children – are basically hedonistic – they are driven to seek pleasure by gratifying the Id’s desires (Freud, 1920).

    Sources of pleasure are determined by the location of the libido (life-force).

    As a child moves through different developmental stages, the location of the libido, and hence sources of pleasure, change (Freud, 1905).

    Environmental and parental experiences during childhood influence an individual's personality during adulthood.

    For example, during the first two years of life, the infant who is neglected (insufficiently fed) or who is over-protected (over-fed) might become an orally-fixated person (Freud, 1905).

    Tripartite Theory of Personality

    Freud (1923) saw the personality structured into three parts (i.e., tripartite), the id, ego, and superego (also known as the psyche), all developing at different stages in our lives.

    These are systems, not parts of the brain, or in any way physical.

    The id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. It consists of all the inherited (i.e., biological) components of personality, including the sex (life) instinct – Eros (which contains the libido), and aggressive (death) instinct - Thanatos.

    It operates on the pleasure principle (Freud, 1920) which is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences.

    Source : www.simplypsychology.org

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