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    about 3 o’clock this morning, firefighters responded to a building fire. while the fire was limited to one room and there were no injuries, there was about $5,000 worth of structural damage. it was determined that electrical wiring from the mini-refrigerator to the wall receptacle was the cause of the fire.

    James

    Guys, does anyone know the answer?

    get about 3 o’clock this morning, firefighters responded to a building fire. while the fire was limited to one room and there were no injuries, there was about $5,000 worth of structural damage. it was determined that electrical wiring from the mini-refrigerator to the wall receptacle was the cause of the fire. from EN Bilgi.

    Avoiding Electrocution Hazards Flashcards

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    Terms in this set (42)
    What does a conductor allow to move through it easily?Electrical current
    What are some examples of conductors?Metal, wet skin, and water with small amounts of salt or other minerals are all examples of conductors. Electrical current can easily move through these materials. This means that anyone working with electricity in a damp or wet environment needs to exercise extra caution to prevent electrocution.
    What is an insulator?An insulator provides resistance to the movement of electrical current.
    What are some examples of insulators?Pure water, plastic, and dry skin are all examples of insulators. They prevent the electrical current from traveling easily through them. Because electric currents will always follow the path of least resistance, these currents will choose any other more conductive material rather than attempt to move through insulators. Other examples of insulators include rubber, wood, cloth, glass, and the earth.
    What properties does a conductor have?A conductor is a substance that allows electrical current flow.
    Which factor increases the risk of injury if a person is shocked?Sweat creates a wet surface on the skin and makes a person a better conductor, which increases the risk of injury from an electrical shock.
    The electrical circuit is accessed through what?Receptacles. In other words, when tools or equipment wires are plugged into a wall socket, those tools and equipment become part of the circuit. When we plug in an electrical device, we are using the current of electrons that is generated at the power plants and placed onto the national electric power grid.
    Can people become part of a circuit?People can become part of a circuit. When a person becomes part of an electrical circuit, that person can be shocked.
    What can an electric shock result in?An electric shock can result in anything from a slight tingling sensation to immediate cardiac arrest.
    The severity of an electric shock depends on what?1. Amount of current flowing through the body.2. Current's path through the body.3. Length of time the body remains in the circuit.4. Current's frequency.
    B.E.S.A.F.EBurnsElectrocutionShockArc FlashFireExplosions
    Electrical BurnsElectrical burns are among the most serious burns and require immediate medical attention. They occur when electric current flows through tissues or bone, generating heat, and causing damage. Entrance Wound: Because the skin is an insulator, it transforms electrical energy into heat, which produces burns around the entrance point (dark spot in the center of the wound).Exit Wound: Current flows through the body from the entrance point, until finally exiting where the body is closest to the ground. A foot suffered massive internal injuries, which weren't readily visible, and had to be amputated a few days later.
    Arc or Flash BurnsArc or flash burns result from high temperatures caused by an electric arc or explosion near the body. An example of an arc flash is a lightning bolt. The electrical current travels through air. This type of arc flash generates enough heat to melt metal. The same process can happen with any electrical device. In fact, cauterization tools are used to create arc flashes that the surgeon can use to intentionally fuse tissue. When an arc flash is not intended, a burn injury is the result.
    Thermal Contact BurnsThermal contact burns are caused when the skin touches hot surfaces of overheated electric conductors, conduits, or other energized equipment. Thermal burns also can be caused when clothing catches on fire, as may occur when an electric arc is produced.
    Electrocution means what?Electrocution means to injure or kill with electricity and occurs when a person is exposed to harmful amount of electrical energy.
    What job field has the highest risk of electrocution?Construction workers have the highest risk for electrocution
    What is an Arc Flash?An arc flash is the sudden release of electrical energy through the air that gives off thermal energy, or heat, and bright, intense light that can cause burns. Temperatures have been recorded as high as 35,000 °F. A lightning bolt is an example of an arc flash.
    What is an example of an arc flash in the workplace?A source of an arc flash in a workplace setting is the circuit breaker box. If a circuit is tripped in the breaker box, DO NOT attempt to reset it - rather, immediately contact a supervisor to report that situation. If a switch is flipped to the off position, someone may be working on an electrical device located in that specific circuit, or there may be an electrical short or exposed wire that could potentially create an arc flash. To avoid accidental electrocution, never attempt to open a breaker box: always contact a supervisor.
    What can fire be caused by?Fire can be caused by fixed wiring—electrical wires inside the walls of buildings—especially when the wires are old or the outlets are faulty. Fire can also be caused by flexible wiring such as extension cords, appliance cords, or by plugs, receptacles, and switches.
    About 3 o'clock this morning, firefighters responded to a building fire. While the fire was limited to one room and there were no injuries, there was about $5,000 worth of damage to structures. It was determined that electrical wiring from the mini-refrigerator to the wall receptacle was the cause of the fire. The mini-refrigerator fire was most likely caused by what type of wiring?The fire was most likely caused by flexible wiring as the refrigerator cord was responsible for the fire.
    Some overhead power lines have what that protects power lines from exposure to the elements?Protective covering. However, the covering does not protect workers from electrocution. If you touch a power line, covered or bare, death is probable.
    A worker standing on a freshly mopped floor is adjusting products on a metal shelf with which there is a bare wire in contact.The worker makes contact with an energized source because the bare wire is in contact with the metal frame - also a conductor - and the worker is touching it whilst standing on a wet surface.
    After a strong storm, a worker does not realize that a power transmission line has fallen on the car and is electrocuted while opening the car door.By opening the door, the worker comes into contact with the metal frame that is in contact with an overhead power line.
    A client is undergoing therapy in a whirlpool unit that has been plugged into an extension cord.The whirlpool therapy unit should be plugged directly into a receptacle with a GFCI.
    What does OSHA require employers to construct and install to minimize electrocution hazards?1. Lighting found throughout the building2. Appliances such as freezers or refrigerators3. Switches used with generators4. Controls on equipment and machinery in the workplace
    OverloadsDo not overload circuits.
    Check switches and insulationTools and other equipment must operate properly. Make sure that switches and insulating parts are in good condition.
    Three-Prong PlugsNever use a three-prong grounding plug with the third prong broken off. When using tools that require a third-wire ground, use only three-wire extension cords with three-prong grounding plugs and three-hole electrical outlets. Never remove the grounding prong from a plug! You could be shocked or expose someone else to a hazard. If you see a cord without a grounding prong in the plug, remove the cord from service immediately.
    CordsRemove cords from receptacles by pulling on the plugs, not the cords.
    Extension CordsUse extension cords properly. If an extension cord must be used, choose one with sufficient ampacity for the tool being used. An undersized cord can overheat and cause a drop in voltage and tool power. Make sure the insulation is intact. To reduce the risk of damage to a cord's insulation, use cords with insulation marked "S" (hard service) rather than cords marked "SJ" (junior hard service). Make sure the grounding prong is intact. In damp locations, make sure wires and connectors are waterproof and approved for such locations. Do not create a tripping hazard.
    A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) is designed to do what?1. Protect people from severe and sometimes fatal electrocution by monitoring for electrical leakage on the ground.2. Detect when the current leakage is greater than 5 mA.3. Interrupt the flow of electric current by tripping quickly enough to prevent electrocution from leakage.
    In a case where electrical current leakage from the circuit occurs, the GFCI would do what?1. Sense the current leakage2. Trip the circuit3. Cut off the electricity
    Will the GFCI protect you from line contact hazards?The GFCI will not protect you from line contact hazards (i.e. a person holding two "hot" wires, a hot and a neutral wire in each hand, or contacting an overhead power line). However, it protects against the most common form of electrical shock hazard, the ground-fault. It also protects against fires, overheating, and destruction of wire insulation.
    What does lockout/tagout mean/do?1. Protects workers from injury while working on or near electrical circuits and equipment.2. Locks the device or power source and prevents anyone from turning on the hazardous power sources while someone is performing maintenance or servicing work.3. Requires workers to place a tag on the locked device indicating that it should not be turned on. When using a tag, other energy isolation techniques may be necessary to maintain worker safety.4. Prevents contact with operating equipment parts such as, blades, gears, shafts, etc.5. Prevents the unexpected release of hazardous gases, fluids, or solid matter in areas where workers are present.
    Employers should attach tags to identify equipment or circuits being worked on while any worker is exposed to contact with what parts?Live parts
    How does a GFCI protect you?It detects if there is any current leakage and cuts of the electrical flow.
    Is using a three-prong plug with a missing ground post safe or unsafe?It is unsafe to use a three-prong plug with a missing ground post.
    Is placing a plug into a wall receptacle with your hand on the plug safe or unsafe?It is safe to place a plug into a wall receptacle with your hand on the plug, rather than on the cord.
    Is it safe or unsafe to pull on a cord to remove plug from a wall receptacle?It is unsafe to remove a plug from a receptacle by placing your hand on the cord. Always place your hand on the plug to remove a cord from the wall receptacle.
    When a person is injured or killed after being exposed to a harmful amount of electrical energy it is known as what?Electrocution
    A client is undergoing therapy in a whirlpool unit that has been plugged into an extension cord. What is this an example of?Using extension or flexible cords improperly.
    A worker standing on a freshly mopped floor is adjusting products on a metal shelf. There is an exposed wire in contact with the shelving. What is this an example of?Contacting energized sources

    Source : quizlet.com

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      = "##$%&&'''()*+,,+-*.,/0120,()/3 AVOIDING ELECTROCUTION HAZARDS MODULE DESCRIPTION This module describes how to avoid injury from electrical shock and electrocution in the workplace. OBJECTIVES After completing this module, students will be able to: Describe types of electrocution hazards Recognize employer requirements to protect workers from electrocution hazards Identify contact with power lines and energized sources Describe proper lockout/tagout procedures Explain using ground fault circuit interrupter’s (GFCI) Protect yourself, co-workers, and patients from electrocution hazards Inspect power cords, extension cords, and portable tools MODULE OUTLINE 1. Introduction to Electrocution Hazards !
    Because electricity is such a familiar part of our daily life, many of us may not give a lot of thought to how much we depend on reliable sources of electricity. More importantly, we may overlook the hazards electricity poses and fail to take the necessary precautions to protect ourselves, our coworkers, and our patients.
    ! In 2015, there were over 4300 electrical -related violations cited by OSHA in the workplace. !
    Workers need to be prepared to recognize hazards associated with electricity. OSHA standards apply in any setting. All workers need training regarding electricity and electrocution hazards.
    ! Here are a few terms associated with electricity: ! Amperage:
    Amperage, more commonly referred to as amps or milliamps, indicates the strength of an electrical current. Amperage is measured in units of Amperes, often called Amps or milliamps. (One amp is equal to 1,000 milliamps).
    ! Conductor:
     Conductor is defined as a material through which an electrical current easily moves. A conductor material allows a current flow.
    ! Current:
     Current that is electrical is defined as the movement of electrical charge. Current is measured in amps.
    ! Deenergized:
     Deenergized means that all energy sources to circuits and equipment has  been turned off and any stored energy has been depleted from the system.
      = "##$%&&'''()*+,,+-*.,/0120,()/3 ! Energized:
     Energized, also called live, or hot, means that a voltage is present and it can cause an electrical current. Any time an electrical current is present, there is a risk of being shocked.
    ! Insulator:
     Insulator, or insulation, is a material that does not easily conduct electricity. An insulator material resists current flow.
    ! Shocking Current:
     Shocking current is the electrical current that passes through a part of the body. In that case, we usually say that someone is shocked by electricity.
    ! Voltage:  Voltage is a measure of electrical force. Voltage is measured in volts. ! The word electricity  is used to describe current flow through a conductor in a closed circuit. !
    Electrical current can easily move through a conductor; however, an insulator provides resistance to that movement.
    ! A few examples of conductors include: ! Metals !  body tissues !  body fluids ! and water ! A few examples of insulators include ! Rubber ! Plastic ! Wood ! Cloth ! Glass ! and the earth !
    Air, normally an insulator, can become a conductor, as occurs during an arc flash or lightning strike.
    Pure water is a poor conductor. But small amounts of impurities in water like salt, or chlorine, help water become a better conductor. Dry wood, for example, generally slows or stops the flow of electricity. But when saturated with water, wood turns into a conductor. The same is true of human skin. Dry skin has a fairly high resistance to electric current. But when skin is moist or wet, it acts as a conductor. 2.
    Electrical Current !
    When electrical current is available, an electrical switch can be used to start or stop current flow through a circuit. An example is a light switch. Turn the switch on and electricity flows through the circuit to the light bulb.
    ! There are two types of current; alternating current: o
    (AC), provided by electric generators that supply current to an electric grid shared by everyone in the country
    o direct-current (DC) provided by a battery. o
    DC current is not an efficient way to provide electrical power across long distances, so AC current is used as a better source of power for lights, motors, machines, and other electrical devices.
    ! In order for current to flow through a conductor, three things must be present: 1.
    A source of electrical current to flow -- AC electrical current comes from a power generating station, DC current comes from a battery. AC current cannot be stored in a

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     battery like DC current, so there are electrical generators to replace current as it is used  by consumers.
    2.
    Something to transport the electrical current -- A conductor allows current to move through it. This statement applies to all current, whether it is AC or DC. An example is a metal wire.
    3.
    Something that causes current to flow through the conductor. Voltage pushes current through metal wires in a circuit.
    !
    The voltage that pushes DC current depends on the size of materials in a battery. The voltage that pushes AC current depends on the electrical power plant, and can be very large. 3.
    Electrical Circuit !
    An electric circuit is a closed loop in which electrons move from a power source, through a conductor, and back to the power source. We now have a new term—electron--to use when we think about “what” is actually moving through a circuit. We use the term “current” to describe the movement of electrons in an electric circuit, and electrons are charged particles capable of moving through conductors.
    !
    If we think of the human vascular system as a circuit, blood cells are like electrons, blood vessels carry blood cells like the metal wires that carry electrons, and the heart provides a force to push  blood cells through the vascular system, just like voltage pushes electrons through an electrical circuit.
    !
    The electrical circuit is accessed through receptacles. In other words, when medical tools or medical equipment wires are plugged into a wall socket, those tools and equipment become part of the circuit.
    !
    When we plug in an electrical device, we are using the current of electrons that is generated at the  power plants and placed onto the national electric power grid.
    !
    People can become part of a circuit. When a person becomes part of an electrical circuit, that  person can be shocked. A common example is the use of a defibrillator. Before the paddles are applied to the patient, the healthcare worker will say the word “clear” to indicate to others that anyone nearby needs to back away so as not to become part of the electrical circuit.
    !
    Becoming part of the circuit means that a person will be shocked – whether it is intentional for medical purposes or accidental. An unintentional shock may result in injury.
    !
    An electric shock can result in anything from a slight tingling sensation to immediate cardiac arrest. The severity depends on the:
    ! Amount of current flowing through the body. ! Current’s path through the body. ! Length of time the body remains in the circuit. ! Current’s frequency.

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      = "##$%&&'''()*+,,+-*.,/0120,()/3 4. Common Electrocution Hazards !
    The acronym BE SAFE is a reminder of the most common types of hazards or injuries due to electricity.
    !
    An electrical hazard is defined as a serious workplace hazard that exposes workers to any of the following:
    ! B urns ! E lectrocution ! S hock ! A rc flash ! F ire ! E
    xplosions 5.
    Burns ! The B in the BE SAFE acronym stands for BURNS.
    Burns are the most common electrical shock-related contact injury resulting from electrical shock, arc flash, or thermal (heat) energy.
    !
    There are three recognized levels of burns; each is summarized below: 1.
    First-degree burns involve the top layer of skin, or the epidermis. A mild sunburn is a common example of a first-degree burn. In general, the skin is red, painful to touch, and shows mild swelling. A treatment that consists of cool, wet compress, or cool water, plus over-the-counter  pain medications is often enough to relieve the pain and swelling. 2.
    Second-degree burns involve the first two layers of skin, the epidermis and dermis. Blistering, reddening of the skin, pain, and fluid leaking from the blisters. These burns often require medical treatment by healthcare professionals. 3.
    Third-degree burns involve penetration of the entire thickness of the skin (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis), and tissues (hair, nerves, and sweat glands) are often permanently damaged or destroyed. In addition, because electrical burns are deep, bone tissue may also be damaged. The skin is often permanently damaged or destroyed. The skin appears dry and leathery with the possibility of a charred appearance, or patches of white, brown, or black. Most electrical  burns are third degree and must be treated by a trained healthcare professional.
    ! There are three common types of burns caused by electricity: !  Electrical burns
     are among the most serious burns and require immediate medical attention. They occur when electric current flows through tissues or bone, generating heat, and causing damage.
    !  Entrance Wound 
    : Because skin is an insulator, it transforms electrical energy into heat, which produces burns around the entrance point (dark spot in center of wound).
    !  Exit Wound 
    : Current flows through the body from the entrance point, until finally exiting where the body is closest to the ground. This foot suffered massive internal injuries, which weren't readily visible, and had to be amputated a few days later.
    !  Arc or flash burns
     result from high temperatures caused by an electric arc or explosion near the body.
    !
    An example of an arc flash is a lightning bolt. The electrical current travels through air. This type of arc flash generates enough heat to melt metal. The same process can happen with any electrical device. In fact, cauterization tools are used to create arc

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    flashes that the surgeon can use to intentionally fuse tissue. When an arc flash is not intended, a burn injury burn is the result.
    ! Thermal contact burns
     are caused when the skin touches hot surfaces of overheated electric conductors, conduits, or other energized equipment. Thermal burns also can be caused when clothing catches on fire, as may occur when an electric arc is produced. 6.
    Electrocution ! The first E  in the BE SAFE  acronym stands for electrocution. !
    Electrocution means to injure or kill with electricity and occurs when a person is exposed to harmful amount of electrical energy. 7.
    Electrical Shock ! The S  in the BE SAFE
     acronym stands for shock. Electrical shock is the body’s reflex response when electric current passes through the human body. Electrical shock happens when electric current enters the body at one point and leaves through another.
    !
    The physiological reaction or injury caused by electric current passing through the human body. Electric shock can have minimal effects or can be life threatening, depending on the amount of current encountered and the length of contact.
    !
    Electricity travels in closed circuits, or loops, and normally through a conductor. Shock, from electricity, happens when the body becomes part of the electrical circuit.
    !
    Typically, electrical shock may occur when a person makes contact with a circuit in one of three ways:
    !
    Both wires of an energized circuit. For example, when a second person touches the skin as a defibrillator is applied.
    !
    One wire of an energized circuit and the ground. Examples: Incorrectly applied muscle stimulation electrodes, unknowingly holding an exposed wire from a cord in an appliance, or  pulling an electrical cord from a receptacle by holding an area of the cord with insulation damage and exposed wiring – even when there are very small pieces of missing or damaged insulation
    !
    A metallic part in contact with an energized wire while the person is also in contact with the ground. Example: A worker is using a drill and does not realize that the casing and insulation is damaged. 8.
    Arc Flash ! The A  in the BE SAFE  acronym stands for arc flash. An arc flash
    is the sudden release of electrical energy through the air that gives off thermal energy, or heat, and bright, intense light that can cause  burns. Temperatures have been recorded as high as 35,000 °F. A lightning bolt is an example of an arc flash. Let’s now look of examples of where you might encounter arc flashes in the workplace.
    ! A source of an arc flash in the workplace is; the circuit breaker box. ! Circuit Breaker Boxes:
    There are multiple circuits within a building and each of those circuits can deenergized by turning off the corresponding switch in a breaker box. The breaker switches can turn off, or trip to the off position, if there is an electrical problem in the circuit. An overload on the circuit is an example.

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      = "##$%&&'''()*+,,+-*.,/0120,()/3 !
    Everyone has the right to work in a safe environment. Safety and health add value to the workplace. Through cooperative efforts, employers and employees can learn to identify and eliminate or control electrical hazards. 17.
    Inspecting Power Cords, Extension Cords, and Portable Tools !
    Here are some descriptions for inspecting power cords, including those on portable tools, and extension cords:
    ! Overloads : Do not overload circuits. ! Check switches and insulation
    : Tools and other equipment must operate properly. Make sure that switches and insulating parts are in good condition.
    ! Three-prong Plugs
    : Never use a three-prong grounding plug with the third prong broken-off. When using tools that require a third-wire ground, use only three-wire extension cords with three- prong grounding plugs and three-hole electrical out-lets. Never remove the grounding prong from a plug! You could be shocked or expose someone else to a hazard. If you see a cord without a grounding prong in the plug, remove the cord from service immediately.
    ! Cords: Remove cords from receptacles by pulling on the plugs, not the cords. ! Extension Cords:
    Use extension cords properly. If an extension cord must be used, choose one with sufficient ampacity for the tool being used. An undersized cord can overheat and cause a drop in voltage and tool power. Make sure the insulation is intact. To reduce the risk of damage to a cord's insulation, use cords with insulation marked "S" (hard service) rather than cords marked "SJ" (junior hard service). Make sure the grounding prong is intact. In damp locations, make sure wires and connectors are waterproof and approved for such locations. Do not create a tripping hazard.

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