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    a researcher wants to understand the personality characteristics and motivations that might help explain a famous political figure’s rise to power. she studies his early childhood experiences and other formative events in his life. the method this researcher is using to study personality is known as

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    1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions – Introduction to Psychology – 1st Canadian Edition

    1.2 THE EVOLUTION OF PSYCHOLOGY: HISTORY, APPROACHES, AND QUESTIONS

    Learning Objectives

    Explain how psychology changed from a philosophical to a scientific discipline.

    List some of the most important questions that concern psychologists.

    Outline the basic schools of psychology and how each school has contributed to psychology.

    In this section we will review the history of psychology with a focus on the important questions that psychologists ask and the major approaches (or schools) of psychological inquiry. The schools of psychology that we will review are summarized in Table 1.3, “The Most Important Approaches (Schools) of Psychology,” while Table 1.4, “History of Psychology,” presents a timeline of some of the most important psychologists, beginning with the early Greek philosophers and extending to the present day. Table 1.3 and Table 1.4 both represent a selection of the most important schools and people; to mention all the approaches and all the psychologists who have contributed to the field is not possible in one chapter. The approaches that psychologists have used to assess the issues that interest them have changed dramatically over the history of psychology. Perhaps most importantly, the field has moved steadily from speculation about behaviour toward a more objective and scientific approach as the technology available to study human behaviour has improved (Benjamin & Baker, 2004). There has also been an influx of women into the field. Although most early psychologists were men, now most psychologists, including the presidents of the most important psychological organizations, are women.

    Table 1.3 The Most Important Approaches (Schools) of Psychology.

    [Skip Table]

    School of Psychology Description Important Contributors

    Structuralism Uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements or “structures” of psychological experience Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener

    Functionalism Attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess William James

    Psychodynamic Focuses on the role of our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behaviour Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson

    Behaviourism Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behaviour itself John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner

    Cognitive The study of mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgments Hermann Ebbinghaus, Sir Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget

    Social-cultural The study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behaviour Fritz Heider, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter

    Although most of the earliest psychologists were men, women are increasingly contributing to psychology. Here are some examples:

    1968: Mary Jean Wright became the first woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association.

    1970: Virginia Douglas became the second woman president of the Canadian Psychological Association.

    1972: The Underground Symposium was held at the Canadian Psychological Association Convention. After having their individual papers and then a symposium rejected by the Program Committee, a group of six graduate students and non-tenured faculty, including Sandra Pyke and Esther Greenglass, held an independent research symposium that showcased work being done in the field of the psychology of women.

    1976: The Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women was founded.

    1987: Janet Stoppard led the Women and Mental Health Committee of the Canadian Mental Health Association.

    Although it cannot capture every important psychologist, the following timeline shows some of the most important contributors to the history of psychology. (Adapted by J. Walinga.)

    Table 1.4 History of Psychology.

    [Skip Table]

    Date Psychologist(s) Description

    428 to 347 BCE Plato Greek philosopher who argued for the role of nature in psychological development.

    384 to 432 BCE Aristotle Greek philosopher who argued for the role of nurture in psychological development.

    1588 to 1679 CE Thomas Hobbes English philosopher.

    1596 to 1650 René Descartes French philosopher.

    1632 to 1704 John Locke English philosopher.

    1712 to 1778 Jean-Jacques Rousseau French philosopher.

    1801 to 1887 Gustav Fechner German experimental psychologist who developed the idea of the “just noticeable difference” (JND), which is considered to be the first empirical psychological measurement.

    1809 to 1882 Charles Darwin British naturalist whose theory of natural selection influenced the functionalist school and the field of evolutionary psychology.

    1832 to 1920 Wilhelm Wundt German psychologist who opened one of the first psychology laboratories and helped develop the field of structuralism.

    1842 to 1910 William James American psychologist who opened one of the first psychology laboratories and helped develop the field of functionalism.

    1849 to 1936 Ivan Pavlov Russian psychologist whose experiments on learning led to the principles of classical conditioning.

    1850 to 1909 Hermann Ebbinghaus German psychologist who studied the ability of people to remember lists of nonsense syllables under different conditions.

    Source : opentextbc.ca

    Unit 7 Exam Flashcards

    Start studying Unit 7 Exam. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Unit 7 Exam

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    A researcher wants to test whether increasing the size of a monetary incentive will motivate a person to perform better on a skill-based task. Which of the following methods is the best way to test this question, and what result will the researcher most likely find?

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    Offer three different groups of participants three different payment amounts (small, medium, or large) based on their performance on a single task. The researcher will likely find that participants perform best on the task that pays the most.

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    Alfred Kinsey used a method that allowed for extensive information to be collected from discussions with individual participants. The research method that he used, and his research contributions, were

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    personal interviews; sexual behavior in women

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    A researcher wants to test whether increasing the size of a monetary incentive will motivate a person to perform better on a skill-based task. Which of the following methods is the best way to test this question, and what result will the researcher most likely find?

    Offer three different groups of participants three different payment amounts (small, medium, or large) based on their performance on a single task. The researcher will likely find that participants perform best on the task that pays the most.

    Alfred Kinsey used a method that allowed for extensive information to be collected from discussions with individual participants. The research method that he used, and his research contributions, were

    personal interviews; sexual behavior in women

    Researchers conduct a study in which university students are asked to solve puzzles, a task that all students in the experiment report enjoying before the study. They split the students into two groups: a group that is paid money for doing the puzzles, and a group that is not. The researchers then observe how often students in each group complete puzzles during their break time when they are allowed to do whatever they want. Assuming that their results are consistent with previous findings, the researchers are most likely to find that

    the independent variable—whether or not the students receive money for doing puzzles—has a significant effect, such that students in the paid group spend less time doing puzzles during their break time

    The neurotransmitter that is primarily associated with the feeling of wanting something is

    dopamine

    Which of the following is considered the most basic of needs?

    Obtaining food and water

    An example of a primary drive is...

    sleeping

    Hans grew up in Germany and later moved to Japan for a job opportunity. Back at home, he never had issues making friends or had interpersonal issues with colleagues at work, but in his new home, Hans is having difficulty interacting with his colleagues. According to psychologists who study how culture influences behavior, his difficulties most likely stem from

    cultural differences in emotional expression and body language between Japan and Germany

    Leo and Caitlin are both experiencing feelings about their date tonight. Leo has had bad dates lately, and so he feels fear and dejection. Caitlin, meanwhile, has had very good dates, and so she feels excited and happy. According to Richard Lazarus' appraisal theory,

    Leo and Caitlin have an immediate unconscious interpretation of the scenario, which leads them to simultaneously both label their feelings as either positive or negative and have the appropriate physiological response

    Tahani is hiking in the woods and sees some movement in the trees. She immediately tenses up. A few moments later, after she realizes that the trees were just rustling in the wind, she calms down. According to Joseph LeDoux, Tahani's reaction is due to the fact that

    there is a fast processing path that sends sensory information directly to the amygdala, causing Tahani's initial fear response, and a slower processing path that processes the content of sensory information first, which overrode Tahani's fear response

    The final stage of general adaptation theory is known as

    exhaustion

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    Personality and the Psychodynamic Perspective

    Personality and the Psychodynamic Perspective

    Personality and the Psychodynamic Perspective What you’ll learn to do: define personality and the contributions of Freud and neo-Freudians to personality theory

    Sigmund Freud presented the first comprehensive theory of personality. He was also the first to recognize that much of our mental life takes place outside of our conscious awareness. He proposed three components to our personality: the id, ego, and superego. The job of the ego is to balance the sexual and aggressive drives of the id with the moral ideal of the superego. Freud also said that personality develops through a series of psychosexual stages. In each stage, pleasure focuses on a specific erogenous zone. Failure to resolve a stage can lead one to become fixated in that stage, leading to unhealthy personality traits. Successful resolution of the stages leads to a healthy adult.

    The neo-Freudians were psychologists whose work followed from Freud’s. They generally agreed with Freud that childhood experiences matter, but they decreased the emphasis on sex and focused more on the social environment and effects of culture on personality. Some of the notable neo-Freudians are Alfred Adler, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson, and Karen Horney. The neo-Freudian approaches have been criticized, because they tend to be philosophical rather than based on sound scientific research. You’ll learn about Freud and the neo-Freudian perspectives on personality in this section.

    WATCH IT

    Watch this CrashCourse video for an excellent overview of these concepts:

    LEARNING OBJECTIVES

    Define personality and describe early theories about personality development

    Describe the assumptions of the psychodynamic perspective on personality development, including the id, ego, and superego

    Define and describe the defense mechanisms

    Define and describe the psychosexual stages of personality development

    What Is Personality?

    Personality refers to the long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways. Our personality is what makes us unique individuals. Each person has an idiosyncratic pattern of enduring, long-term characteristics and a manner in which he or she interacts with other individuals and the world around them. Our personalities are thought to be long term, stable, and not easily changed. The word personality comes from the Latin word persona. In the ancient world, a persona was a mask worn by an actor. While we tend to think of a mask as being worn to conceal one’s identity, the theatrical mask was originally used to either represent or project a specific personality trait of a character (Figure 1).

    Figure 1. Happy, sad, impatient, shy, fearful, curious, helpful. What characteristics describe your personality?

    Historical Perspectives

    The concept of personality has been studied for at least 2,000 years, beginning with Hippocrates in 370 BCE (Fazeli, 2012). Hippocrates theorized that personality traits and human behaviors are based on four separate temperaments associated with four fluids (“humors”) of the body: choleric temperament (yellow bile from the liver), melancholic temperament (black bile from the kidneys), sanguine temperament (red blood from the heart), and phlegmatic temperament (white phlegm from the lungs) (Clark & Watson, 2008; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985; Lecci & Magnavita, 2013; Noga, 2007). Centuries later, the influential Greek physician and philosopher Galen built on Hippocrates’s theory, suggesting that both diseases and personality differences could be explained by imbalances in the humors and that each person exhibits one of the four temperaments. For example, the choleric person is passionate, ambitious, and bold; the melancholic person is reserved, anxious, and unhappy; the sanguine person is joyful, eager, and optimistic; and the phlegmatic person is calm, reliable, and thoughtful (Clark & Watson, 2008; Stelmack & Stalikas, 1991). Galen’s theory was prevalent for over 1,000 years and continued to be popular through the Middle Ages.

    In 1780, Franz Gall, a German physician, proposed that the distances between bumps on the skull reveal a person’s personality traits, character, and mental abilities (Figure 2). According to Gall, measuring these distances revealed the sizes of the brain areas underneath, providing information that could be used to determine whether a person was friendly, prideful, murderous, kind, good with languages, and so on. Initially, phrenology was very popular; however, it was soon discredited for lack of empirical support and has long been relegated to the status of pseudoscience (Fancher, 1979).

    Figure 2. The pseudoscience of measuring the areas of a person’s skull is known as phrenology. (a) Gall developed a chart that depicted which areas of the skull corresponded to particular personality traits or characteristics (Hothersall, 1995). (b) An 1825 lithograph depicts Gall examining the skull of a young woman. (credit b: modification of work by Wellcome Library, London)

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

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