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    a reproductive disorder in which uterine tissue migrates and grows in the ovaries or fallopian tubes is called

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    Endometriosis

    Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to your uterine lining grows outside your uterus and gets stuck to other organs or structures, often resulting in pain or infertility. READ MORE

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    Endometriosis

    Eric S. Surrey, MD

    CONDITIONS & TREATMENTS

    Overview

    What Is It?

    Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to your uterine lining grows outside your uterus and gets stuck to other organs or structures, often resulting in pain or infertility.

    Endometriosis is a noncancerous condition in which tissue similar to the Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue similar to your uterine lining grows outside your uterus and gets stuck to other organs or structures, often resulting in pain or infertility.(uterine lining) grows outside your uterus and adheres to other structures, most commonly in the pelvis, such as on the ovaries, bowel, fallopian tubes or bladder. Rarely it implants in other places, such as the liver, lungs, diaphragm and surgical sites.

    It is a common cause of pelvic pain and infertility. It affects about 5 million women in the United States.

    Historically thought of as a disease that affects adult women, endometriosis is increasingly being diagnosed in adolescents, as well.

    The most common symptoms are painful menstrual periods and/or chronic pelvic pain.

    Others include:

    Diarrhea and painful bowel movements, especially during menstruation

    Intestinal pain Painful intercourse

    Abdominal tenderness

    Backache

    Severe menstrual cramps

    Excessive menstrual bleeding

    Painful urination

    Pain in the pelvic region with exercise

    Painful pelvic examinations

    Infertility

    It is important to understand that other conditions aside from endometriosis can cause any or all of these symptoms and other causes may need to be ruled out. These include, but are not limited to, interstitial cystitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, pelvic adhesions (scar tissue), ovarian masses, uterine abnormalities, fibromyalgia, malabsorption syndromes and, very rarely, malignancies.

    When endometriosis tissue grows outside of the uterus, it continues to respond to hormonal signals—specifically estrogen—from the ovaries telling it to grow. Estrogen is the hormone that causes your uterine lining to thicken each month. When estrogen levels drop, the lining is expelled from the uterus, resulting in menstrual flow (you get your period). But unlike the tissue lining the uterus, which leaves your body during menstruation, endometriosis tissue is essentially trapped.

    With no place to go, the tissue bleeds internally. Your body reacts to the internal bleeding with inflammation, a process that can lead to the formation of scar tissue, also called adhesions. This inflammation and the resulting scar tissue may cause pain and other symptoms.

    Recent research also finds that this misplaced endometrial tissue may develop its own blood supply to help it proliferate and nerve supply to communicate with the brain, one reason for the condition's severe pain and the other chronic pain conditions so many women with endometriosis suffer from.

    The type and intensity of symptoms range from completely disabling to mild. Sometimes, there aren't any symptoms at all, particularly in women with so-called "unexplained infertility."

    If your endometriosis results in scarring of the reproductive organs, it may affect your ability to get pregnant. In fact, 30 to 40 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile. Even mild endometriosis can result in infertility.

    Researchers don't know what causes endometriosis, but many theories exist. One suggests that retrograde menstruation—or "reverse menstruation"—may be the main cause. In this condition, menstrual blood doesn't flow out of the cervix (the opening of the uterus to the vagina), but, instead, is pushed backward out of the uterus through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity.

    But because most women experience some amount of retrograde menstruation without developing endometriosis, researchers believe something else may contribute to its development.

    For example, endometriosis could be an immune system problem or local hormonal imbalance that enables the endometrial tissue to take root and grow after it is pushed out of the uterus.

    Other researchers believe that in some women, certain abdominal cells mistakenly turn into endometrial cells. These same cells are the ones responsible for the growth of a woman's reproductive organs in the embryonic stage. It's believed that something in the woman's genetic makeup or something she's exposed to in the environment in later life changes those cells so they turn into endometrial tissue outside the uterus. There's also some thinking that damage to cells that line the pelvis from a previous infection can lead to endometriosis.

    Some studies show that environmental factors may play a role in the development of endometriosis. Toxins in the environment such as dioxin seem to affect reproductive hormones and immune system responses, but this theory has not been proven and is controversial in the medical community.

    Other researchers believe the endometrium itself is abnormal, which allows the tissue to break away and attach elsewhere in the body.

    Endometriosis may have a genetic link, with studies finding an increase in risk if your mother or sister had the disorder. No specific genetic mutation has been clearly linked with the disease.

    Source : www.healthywomen.org

    Endometriosis: What is Endometriosis? Endometriosis Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

    Endometriosis is a disorder where the tissue that makes up the uterine lining (the lining of the womb) grows outside the uterus.

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    Endometriosis: Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

    Affiliated: Endometriosis Frequently Asked Questions | Fertility | Gynecology

    Endometriosis Overview: What is Endometriosis?

    Endometriosis is a disease in which the endometrium (the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus or womb) is present outside of the uterus. Endometriosis most commonly occurs in the lower abdomen or pelvis, but it can appear anywhere in the body. Symptoms of endometriosis include lower abdominal pain, pain with menstrual periods, pain with sexual intercourse, and difficulty getting pregnant. On the other hand, some women with endometriosis may not have any symptoms at all.

    Watch Endometriosis Video >

    Approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women have endometriosis.  However, the true prevalence is unknown since the diagnosis requires laparoscopy (a surgery where a doctor looks in the abdomen with a camera through the belly button) to visualize and biopsy endometriosis lesions.  Endometriosis is seen in 12-32% of women having surgery for pelvic pain, and in up to 50% of women having surgery for infertility. Endometriosis is rarely found in girls before they start their period, but it is seen in up to half of young girls and teens with pelvic pain and painful periods.

    What Happens When You Have Endometriosis?

    Causes of Endometriosis

    The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown, but there are several theories that explain how and why endometriosis happens. Retrograde menstruation is one popular theory of its origin in which blood and tissue from a woman’s uterus travel through the fallopian tubes into the abdominal cavity during her period.  Nearly all women have some degree of retrograde menstruation, but only a few women will get endometriosis. This may be due to differences in a woman’s immune system.

    Another theory of endometriosis origin is called coelomic metaplasia, in which cells in the body outside of the uterus can undergo changes to become cells that line the uterus. This is a common explanation for endometriosis at unusual sites like the thumb or knee.  Another possible explanation for endometriosis in locations far from the uterus is that cells from the lining of the uterus travel through blood vessels or the lymphatic system, thereby reaching other distant organs or body areas.

    Endometriosis can also spread at the time of surgery. For example, a woman with endometriosis that undergoes a cesarean section could inadvertently have endometriosis implant in the abdominal incision so that she develops endometriosis in the scar from the surgery.

    Endometriosis is much more common if a close relative also has the disease, so there may also be genes that influence endometriosis.

    View larger image >

    Why is Endometriosis Associated with Pain?

    When a woman with endometriosis has her period, she has bleeding from both the cells and tissue inside the uterus, and also from the cells and tissue outside the uterus. When blood touches these other organs inside the abdomen, it can cause inflammation and irritation, creating pain. Scar tissue can also develop from the endometriosis and contribute to the pain.

    For information about our chronic pelvic pain program >

    For information about our general gynecology services >

    Why is Endometriosis Associated with Infertility?

    Endometriosis and Fertility

    Between 20 and 40% of women with infertility will have endometriosis. Endometriosis likely impairs fertility in two ways: first, by causing distortion of the fallopian tubes so that they are unable to pick up the egg after ovulation, and second, by creating inflammation that can adversely affect the function of the ovary, egg, fallopian tubes or uterus.

    For information about our fertility and reproductive health services >

    How Endometriosis impacts fertility >

    Symptoms of Endometriosis

    Endometriosis Symptoms

    Pain is the most common symptom of endometriosis.  Women with endometriosis can experience pelvic or lower abdominal pain, pain with menses (dysmenorrhea), pain with intercourse (dyspareunia) and pain during bowel movements (dyschezia).  Symptoms can be constant or “cyclical,” meaning that they worsen before and during the period, and then improve. Women may have constant pelvic or lower abdominal pain as well. Other symptoms include infertility, bowel and bladder symptoms (bloating, constipation, blood in the urine, or pain with urination), and possibly abnormal vaginal bleeding.

    How is Endometriosis Diagnosed?

    Diagnosing Endometriosis

    Some physicians may treat suspected endometriosis based on a woman’s symptoms or physical examination findings to see if they improve without proceeding to surgery.  However, to formally diagnose endometriosis, a doctor must perform laparoscopy (surgery in which a doctor looks in the abdomen with a camera through the belly button) to visualize and biopsy suspected endometriosis lesions.  Endometriosis lesions can vary in appearance. “Endometrioma” is the term for endometriosis within an ovary, and is often nicknamed “chocolate cyst” because the material inside the cyst looks like chocolate syrup.

    Source : www.uclahealth.org

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    Terms in this set (60)

    A reproductive disorder in which uterine tissue migrates and grows in the ovaries or Fallopian tubes is called

    endometriosis

    Fertilization of an egg by a sperm occurs in the

    Fallopian tubes

    Female sex hormones are produced by the

    Ovaries

    The risk of toxic shock syndrome is reduced by

    Changing tampons often

    Once a ovum is released from an ovary

    It enters the Fallopian tubes

    The following are all external male reproductive organs except the

    Urethre

    Breast self-examination should be done once a month about a

    a week after the start of the menstrual period

    Which statement is NOT true about menstrual period

    signals the beginning of a pregnancy

    Testes are kept at temperature slightly below normal body temperature by the

    Scrotum

    The female reproductive system

    nourishes the ovum from fertilization to birth

    T or F: An inguinal hernia occurs when part of the intestines pushes through a tear in the abdominal wall.

    True

    T or F: Prostate cancer is most common in males between the ages of 14 and 40`

    False. Prostate should be testicular

    T or F: The vas deferens is the passageway through which both semen and urine leave the body

    False. Vas deferens should be urethra

    T or F: Enviornmental hazards, hormonal imbalances and STD's can cause stertility

    True

    T or F: Circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.

    True

    T or F: Fertilization is the union of a reproductive cell from a male and one from a female

    True

    T or F: The cervix is a small, muscular, pear shaped organ to which the fertilized ovum attaches

    False. Cervix should be uterus

    T or F: Increased semen flow enlarges the penis and makes it erect

    False. Semen should be blood

    T or F: The cell that results from the union of the sperm and ovum is known as a zygote

    True

    T or F: The first sign of the testicular cancer is usually a slight enlargement of one of the testes

    True

    T or F: Many sperm can fertilize an egg.

    False. Many should be one

    T or F: Implantation occurs in the umbilical cord

    False. Umbilical cord should be uterus

    T or F: An embryo develops three distinct layers of tissue

    True

    T or F: Twins, triplets, and quadruplets are examples of multiple births

    True

    T or F: Vitamin B complex helps the nervous system form in a developing fetus.

    True

    Which statement about STD's is true

    They are highly communicable

    An STD that can cause genital warts is

    Genital HPV

    A STD that can cause genital blisters is

    Genital Herpes

    Which is NOT a reason STD's go undiagnosed

    State laws require all STD's to be reported

    Vaginitis is often experienced by females with

    Trichinosis

    T or F: Males are likely to suffer complications from STD's

    False. Males should be females

    T or F: Bacterial STD's can be treated with antibiotics

    True

    T or F: A symptom of syphilis is a single sore that disappears

    True

    T or F: The most common STD among teens is syphilis

    False. Syphilis should be clymida

    T or F: The most HPV infections will disappear without treatments

    True

    T or F: A physical examination and blood tests are used to diagnose gonorrhea

    False. Gonorrhea should be syphilis

    T or F: The person with an STD is ultimately responsible for notifying previous partners.

    True

    T or F: A pap test can diagnose genital HPV in females

    True

    T or F: Setting personal limits on physical affection is a law that can help you stay committed to abstinence

    False. Law should be guidline

    T or F: Genital herpes cannot be cured with antibiotics

    True

    Which is NOT a characteristic of HIV infection

    Curable with antibiotics

    One reason HIV/AIDS is serious is

    Many infected people do not know they are infected

    HIV destroys white blood cells

    Which is the characteristic of the AIDS stage of HIV infection

    opportunistic infections

    Which describes HIV/AIDS

    A disease of the immune system

    Which is not a way to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS

    sharing needles when injecting drugs

    What is typically sent to a lab for analysis when testing for HIV/AIDS

    A sample of blood or an oral specimen

    Which is NOT true about FDA-approved home test kits for HIV/AIDS

    The results are almost never accurate

    Early detection of HIV/AIDS allows a person to

    Began proper medical care to slow the progress of the virus

    HIV belongs to a family of viruses called

    Retroviruses

    T or F: Being told you have HIV-reactive means that you are not infected with HIV.

    False. are not should be are

    T or F: AIDS is the final stage of infection with HIV

    True

    Source : quizlet.com

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