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    a historian researching the motives of the perpetrators of the holocaust would find which of the following sources most useful?

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    Causes and Motivations — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

    Background

    Background CAUSES AND MOTIVATIONS

    Some Were Neighbors Individual Choice

    Because the Holocaust involved people in different roles and situations living in countries across Europe over a period of time—from Nazi Germany in the 1930s to German-occupied Hungary in 1944—one broad explanation regarding motivation, for example, “antisemitism or “fear,” clearly cannot fit all. In addition, usually a combination of motivations and pressures were in play. For the Holocaust as other periods of history, most scholars are wary of monocausal explanations. Interpretations of individuals’ motivations fall into two broad categories: first, cultural explanations (including ideology and antisemitism); and second, social-psychological ones (fear, opportunism, pressures to conform and the like).

    ANTISEMITISM AND SUPPORT FOR NAZISM

    Cultural explanations focus on values, beliefs, and prejudices, particularly antisemitism of various forms, including Nazi antisemitism.

    Within Nazi Germany, everyone did not support Nazism or the Nazi regime to the same degree and to the extent suggested by iconic photographs and film footage of Nazi-staged spectacles. As Doris Bergen writes, “Smooth functioning of the system did not require all Germans—or even most—to share every tenet of Nazi ideology. Enough enthusiasts could always be found to stage enormous public shows of support such as the annual Nazi Party rallies. On a day to day basis, the Nazi regime only needed most people to obey the law, try to stay out of trouble, and promote their own interests as best they could under the current circumstances.”9

    Many older Germans retained old loyalties. “Beneath the cover of totalitarian uniformity . . .  social and religious structures and even political orientations of the previous period were preserved to a certain extent,” Otto Dov Kulka and Eberhard Jäckel explain.10  Protestant, rural, and northern regions generally Nazified earlier than Catholic, urban, and traditionally more liberal western parts of the country. When Hitler took power in Germany, only a small minority of ordinary people shared Nazi antisemitism that saw “the Jews” as “enemies of the people” and a threat to Germany’s very survival. Nazi propaganda and changing norms and laws did erode older, pre-Nazi ties (to Christian teachings or leftist, anti-Nazi political beliefs), especially in the absence of the public expression of opposing views under the Nazi dictatorship. Still, those who espoused extreme antisemitic views remained a minority.11

    The majority of Germans held more moderate prejudices that predated Nazi rule. Many could more easily support measures against “the Jews” in the abstract than the visible persecution or physical harm of Jewish neighbors or business people with whom they had longstanding relations. Thus the limited support of ordinary Germans for the national boycott of Jewish businesses of April 1, 1933, for example, and the shocked response of many Germans to the unprecedented violence and destruction of the Kristallnacht pogroms of November 9–10, 1938.12 Many Germans’ toleration for or acquiescence to Nazi antisemitic policies was facilitated by broader support for the Nazi regime during the years of economic improvement, the popularity of Hitler as a strong leader, and foreign policy successes in the 1930s that restored Germany to great power status after its humiliating defeat in World War I (1914–1918).13

    Outside Nazi Germany, the form and depth of antisemitic attitudes varied greatly from areas where the Jewish population was larger and less integrated, such as many areas of Poland and Romania, compared to many countries in western Europe, such as the Netherlands and France, with smaller, more assimilated Jewish populations and traditions of democratic pluralism. Peoples in the Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) and eastern Poland who experienced and suffered under a “double occupation” during World War II, first by the Soviets (1939–1941), then the Nazis (1941–1944), were particularly susceptible to Nazi propaganda and incitement linking “the Jews” to the “Communist” or “Bolshevik” threat.14

    Antisemitic attitudes were usually secondary, however, to other considerations. In German-occupied countries, the need to prove loyalty to new German masters, particularly if one had previously cooperated with Soviet occupiers, provided many individuals with powerful motivation to collaborate. The hope that cooperating with the Nazis might yield special rewards, from plunder to political independence (say, for Ukraine or Lithuania) also influenced individuals’ choices. 15 Some leaders, allies of Germany with greater autonomy, from more antisemitic Romania to less antisemitic Italy, chose not to collaborate in all measures, notably turning over Jews for deportation “to the East,” in part to protect their countries’ sovereignty. Toward the end of the war, as German defeat seemed imminent, opportunism and the drive for self-preservation again rose to the fore: some leaders, officials, and private citizens helped individual Jews mainly in the hope of garnering protection against charges of prior collaboration with the German enemy.

    Generally, the course of the war proved critical in shaping the choices of individuals at all levels of German and European societies: whether people thought Germany would win—and dominate Europe for the indefinite future—or lose—a possibility that grew after the defeat of German forces at Stalingrad in February 1943.

    Source : www.ushmm.org

    AP World History Flashcards

    Start studying AP World History. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    AP World History

    Demographic trends in industrialized societies in the late 20th and early 21st-century include

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    Lowered fertility rates

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    The diplomatic language of the Muslim empire was

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    Arabic because it was the language of the Quran

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    Demographic trends in industrialized societies in the late 20th and early 21st-century include

    Lowered fertility rates

    The diplomatic language of the Muslim empire was

    Arabic because it was the language of the Quran

    The most influential technology of the last three decades has been

    The computer

    One of the most enduring cultural consequences of the Roman empire has been the

    Romanization of the Western Mediterranean

    Which of the following occurrences during the Cold War best supports the main contention of the passage in the figure

    Both the United States and the Soviet Union aren't in supported rival countries infections in Africa, Asia, and Latin America

    Increased trading and economic growth in the song empire lead to

    The increase in the use of interregional credit

    Using the figure which of the following statements best exemplifies the impact that the Hindu varna caste system had an Indian society

    India developed a rigid heirarchical social structure with defined social roles

    In the ancient societies of Egypt and Mesopotamia, scribes

    Gained power because of the development of record keeping

    In this fictionalized account of the origins of Buddhism outlined in the figure Yu Huan's purpose was most likely to

    Make it easier for his Buddhist readers to convert to Daoism

    The issue which eventually split Muslims and Shi'a and Sunni sects involved

    Who was the rightful leader of the Islamic community after Muhammad died

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    Holocaust education in a global context

    UNESCO Digital Library

    WWW.UNESCO.ORG

    UNESCO

    UNESCO Digital Library

    Notice

    Online Open Access book

    Holocaust education in a global context

    Corporate author:

    Topography of Terror Foundation (Germany) [1], UNESCO. Director-General, 2009-2017 (Bokova, I.G.). writer of foreword [5528]

    Person as author:

    Fracapane, Karel [2], Haß, Matthias [4]

    ISBN: 978-92-3-100042-3 Collation: 192 p. Language: English

    Year of publication:

    2014 Licence type:

    CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO [9931]

    Type of document: book

    Full text

    Contains

    2014 WWW.UNESCO.ORG Disclaimer of use

    Access to Information Policy

    Privacy Policy Terms of use Contact us

    Environmental and Social Policies

    Protection of human rights : Procedure 104

    Transparency Portal Respectzone

    Source : unesdoc.unesco.org

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