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    a high population of greater prairie chickens once inhabited the prairies of illinois. the conversion of the prairies into agricultural land caused the chickens to lose their habitat. studies have concluded that this change greatly reduced the greater prairie chicken population. the habitat loss also resulted in a decrease in the population’s genetic variation. which change in the gene pool occurred in the greater prairie chicken population? gene mutation gene flow genetic drift genetic resistance

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    get a high population of greater prairie chickens once inhabited the prairies of illinois. the conversion of the prairies into agricultural land caused the chickens to lose their habitat. studies have concluded that this change greatly reduced the greater prairie chicken population. the habitat loss also resulted in a decrease in the population’s genetic variation. which change in the gene pool occurred in the greater prairie chicken population? gene mutation gene flow genetic drift genetic resistance from EN Bilgi.

    Greater Prairie Chicken Facts

    Once inhabiting the wide plains of the central US in vast numbers, the greater prairie chicken has fared poorly as its grassland habitat has been converted to other uses. Populations remain in Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota, where TNC is helping these birds make a comeback.

    ANIMALS WE PROTECT

    Greater Prairie Chicken

    Best known for their elaborate mating rituals, the greater prairie chicken is no ordinary bird.

    September 10, 2018 |

    Meet the Greater Prairie Chicken 

    Once a common sight all over the Great Plains, the greater prairie chicken has experienced significant declines. Like its name, the greater prairie chicken is similar to a domesticated chicken in shape and size. Yet they look nothing like the common farm birds! Males have distinct, yellow eyebrows and brightly colored air sacs on their throats. Both males and females have bold brown and white striped feathers.

    The "greater" in their name distinguishes them from the slightly smaller and lighter colored lesser prairie chicken.

    BIG CHICKEN Like its name, the greater prairie chicken is similar to a domesticated chicken in shape and size. Yet they look nothing like farm birds! © Dominique Braud

    Greater Prairie Chicken Facts

    Scientific name:Federal listing: Near ThreatenedPopulation: Estimated 360,000Ideal habitat: Tall and mixed grass prairies with cover for nestingRange: Small populations throughout the Great Plains from Canada to the Mexican Gulf Coast, as well as into the midwest.Nickname: Boomer

    A Booming Courtship Display

    Greater prairie chickens are best known for their elaborate mating rituals. Every spring, males gather together on traditional breeding grounds known as "leks" or "booming grounds" where each male defends a small territory.

    BOOMING GROUNDS Greater prairie chicken courtship displays are their most famous trait. Males raise their neck feathers and inflate their throat sacs, then they crouch down and pop their tail feathers all at once — boom! The sound can be heard a mile away. © Danny Brown

    First, he raises his pinnae feathers (long feathers on the neck) and tail feathers, inflates his bright orange throat sac, and lowers his wings. Then boom! The loud booming sounds made with their air sacs can be heard over a mile away.

    Then, they rapidly stamp their feet and do a stylized dance by rotating in a half-circle one way, then the other way, and make runs at one another. Males often leap into the air to cackle and attack each other with their wings, feet, and beaks.

    Even females get in on the action by chasing one another on the leks. Some "ancestral" leks have been used by the greater prairie chickens for more than a century. The best time to see these displays are just before and after sunrise in spring.

    Females lay 7 to 17 eggs in nests hidden in tall, dense grass. They hatch after 23 to 26 days, and the female leads the hatchlings back to the leks to eat grass seeds and insects.

    LEK BATTLE Males dance, battle, and attract females on leks. Some of these leks are "ancestral" and have been used by the greater prairie chickens for more than a century. The best time to see these displays are just before and after sunrise in spring. © Sean Tomlinson/TNC Photo Contest 2019

    Females lay 7 to 17 eggs in nests hidden in tall, dense grass. They hatch after 23 to 26 days, and the female leads the hatchlings back to the leks to eat grass seeds and insects.

    Why the Greater Prairie Chicken is Endangered

    Greater prairie chickens have fared poorly due to grassland habitat being converted to other development uses. There are three subspecies of greater prairie chicken, each with radically different fates. The heath hen became extinct in 1932, Attwater’s prairie hen survives only in small portions of southeast Texas and is listed as Endangered in the U.S., and the greater prairie chicken, though threatened and isolated in much of its range, remains numerous enough to be hunted in four states.

    Aside from habitat loss, the greater prairie chicken is also threatened by loss of genetic variance resulting from the isolation of populations with no natural corridors between groups. Most management focuses on habitat improvement, but population reintroduction may eventually be necessary to ensure genetic diversity. The largest remaining populations are in Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota.

    PRAIRIE CHICKEN THREATS Greater prairie chickens are threatened by loss of genetic variance. This is a result of isolated populations with no natural corridors between groups. Most management focuses on habitat improvement, but population reintroduction may eventually be necessary. © Bruce Leventhal

    Source : www.nature.org

    A high population of greater prairie chickens once inhabited the prairies of Illinois. The conversion

    A high population of greater prairie chickens once inhabited the prairies of Illinois. The conversion of the prairies into agricultural land caused the - 225370…

    03/26/2021 Biology High School answered

    A high population of greater prairie chickens once inhabited the prairies of Illinois. The conversion of the prairies into agricultural land caused the chickens to lose their habitat. Studies have concluded that this change greatly reduced the greater prairie chicken population. The habitat loss also resulted in a decrease in the population's genetic variation.

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    4.9/5 49 Ambitious 38 answers 31.1K people helped

    Answer:

    The answer is C. genetic drift

    Explanation:

    plz give brianliest Still stuck?

    laminiaduo7 and 77 more users found this answer helpful

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    4.7/5 18 Ambitious 9 answers 807 people helped

    Answer:

    C. Genetic Drift

    Explanation:DIFFERENT BREEED!!

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    Source : brainly.com

    Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene

    A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain ...

    R Soc Open Sci. 2017 Feb; 4(2): 160736.

    Published online 2017 Feb 22. doi: 10.1098/rsos.160736

    PMCID: PMC5367285 PMID: 28386428

    Genetic rescue, the greater prairie chicken and the problem of conservation reliance in the Anthropocene

    S. M. Mussmann,1,2 M. R. Douglas,1 W. J. B. Anthonysamy,1 M. A. Davis,2 S. A. Simpson,3 W. Louis,4 and M. E. Douglas1

    Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

    This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

    Associated Data

    Data Citations

    Supplementary Materials

    Data Availability Statement

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    Abstract

    A central question in conservation is how best to manage biodiversity, despite human domination of global processes (= Anthropocene). Common responses (i.e. translocations, genetic rescue) forestall potential extirpations, yet have an uncertain duration. A textbook example is the greater prairie chicken (GRPC: Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus), where translocations (1992–1998) seemingly rescued genetically depauperate Illinois populations. We re-evaluated this situation after two decades by genotyping 21 microsatellite loci from 1831 shed feathers across six leks in two counties over 4 years (2010–2013). Low migration rates (less than 1%) established each county as demographically independent, but with declining-population estimates (4 year average N = 79). Leks were genetically similar and significantly bottlenecked, with low effective population sizes (average Ne = 13.1; 4 year Ne/N = 0.166). Genetic structure was defined by 12 significantly different family groups, with relatedness r = 0.31 > half-sib r = 0.25. Average heterozygosity, indicating short-term survival, did not differ among contemporary, pre- and post-translocated populations, whereas allelic diversity did. Our results, the natural history of GRPC (i.e. few leks, male dominance hierarchies) and its controlled immigration suggest demographic expansion rather than genetic rescue. Legal protection under the endangered species act (ESA) may enhance recovery, but could exacerbate political–economic concerns on how best to manage ‘conservation-reliant’ species, for which GRPC is now an exemplar.

    Keywords: assignment test, genetic mark–recapture, management unit, microsatellite DNA, relatedness, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus

    Go to:

    1. Introduction

    The Anthropocene (i.e. the human domination of natural global processes) is controversial in both definition and demarcation [1]. It has a serial record in North America, starting with the Beringian migration and continent-wide diversification, then European colonization, followed by westward expansion with its agricultural modifications and industrial enhancements, leading to the post-WW2 ‘great acceleration’ [2]. By most measures, it is best reflected in Midwestern North America, a region increasingly fragmented over the last 300+ years, with forests felled, prairies ploughed and streams sequestered for agricultural and urban purposes.

    1.1. Impacts of the Anthropocene

    Results are less controversial when impacts of the Anthropocene are measured on biodiversity. For example, many species are now listed as threatened and endangered (T&E) under the ESA (US Endangered Species Act), with recovery a prolonged process at best. Furthermore, 84% are now recognized as ‘conservation-reliant’ [3], meaning that direct and ongoing management will still be required even if recovery is achieved. This provokes an obvious query: ‘Given the surge in global threats, how best can species and their ecosystems be effectively managed?’ Mitigation strategies that blunt accumulating declines have indeed been proposed, with the foremost being assisted migration of species [4] and the intentional translocation of individuals [5]. The former aims to establish populations beyond their historic range, whereas the latter strives to initiate or augment populations within the native range.

    1.2. Definitions and examples of genetic rescue and translocations

    ‘Genetic rescue’ [6] is a mitigation strategy whose intent is to restore genetic diversity and reduce extinction risks in small, isolated and frequently inbred populations. Its fundamental driver is translocation [7], a form of demographic rescue that adds numerically to a population so as to prevent its potential extinction. However, demographic and genetic rescue are often conflated, as each can increase population size and/or fitness [8]. This aspect, in turn, necessitates a more thorough definition, assessment and documentation of pre- and post-translocation genetic ancestry [9]. This is an important consideration in that declining ecological conditions, reductions in available habitat and the natural history of the species will conflate any evaluations of post-translocation genetic rescue [10].

    Yet despite these caveats, genetic rescue is viewed as a positive conservation tool, largely owing to its perceived success with iconic species: greater prairie chicken [11], European adder [12], bighorn sheep [13] and Florida panther [14]. Each seemingly persisted as isolated, inbred populations with diminished reproductive success and declining demographics. Following translocation, their demographic rates were seemingly enhanced and recovery promoted.

    1.3. Potential downsides and necessary re-evaluations

    Yet translocations have drawbacks [15,16], as does the more directed genetic rescue, in that benefits may be temporary and with continuous monitoring required to assay for outbreeding depression or reduced effective population size. As an example, the genetic rescue of Isle Royale wolf coincided with a rapid reduction in food resources compounded by the insular nature of the environment, with the subsequent result being a population crash [17]. Of note is the occasional transitory nature of genetic rescue, as well as the necessity for guidelines that define its initiation and prolongation, particularly when supplementation is conducted in the face of deteriorating environmental conditions, an unfortunate occurrence for many populations of conservation concern [9,10]. These issues also surface in this study.

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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