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    a group of randomly selected subjects for a study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age, gender, etc., is called ________.

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    Random Assignment in Experiments

    In an experiment, random assignment means placing your participants into control and experimental groups at random.

    Random Assignment in Experiments | Introduction & Examples

    Published on March 8, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari. Revised on May 6, 2022.

    In experimental research, random assignment is a way of placing participants from your sample into different treatment groups using randomization.

    With simple random assignment, every member of the sample has a known or equal chance of being placed in a control group or an experimental group. Studies that use simple random assignment are also called completely randomized designs.

    Random assignment is a key part of experimental design. It helps you ensure that all groups are comparable at the start of a study: any differences between them are due to random factors.

    Why does random assignment matter?

    Random assignment is an important part of control in experimental research, because it helps strengthen the internal validity of an experiment.

    In experiments, researchers manipulate an independent variable to assess its effect on a dependent variable, while controlling for other variables. To do so, they often use different levels of an independent variable for different groups of participants.

    This is called a between-groups or independent measures design.

    Example: Different levels of an independent variable

    In a clinical study, you investigate the effect of iron supplements (your independent variable) on energy levels (your dependent variable).

    You use three groups of participants that are each given a different level of the independent variable:

    a control group that’s given a placebo (no dosage),

    an experimental group that’s given a low dosage,

    a second experimental group that’s given a high dosage.

    Random assignment to helps you make sure that the treatment groups don’t differ in systematic or biased ways at the start of the experiment.

    If you don’t use random assignment, you may not be able to rule out alternative explanations for your results.

    Example: Non-random assignment

    In your clinical study, you recruit participants using flyers at gyms, cafes, and local community centers. You use a haphazard method to assign participants to groups based on the recruitment location:

    participants recruited from cafes are placed in the control group,

    participants recruited from local community centers are placed in the low dosage experimental group,

    participants recruited from gyms are placed in the high dosage group.

    With this type of assignment, it’s hard to tell whether the participant characteristics are the same across all groups at the start of the study. Gym-users may tend to engage in more healthy behaviors than people who frequent cafes or community centers, and this would introduce a healthy user bias in your study.

    If your study outcomes show more energy in the high dosage group, you might not be able to attribute this result solely to your independent variable manipulation (the iron supplement). Instead, this result may come from the interaction between the participants’ characteristics and the independent variable.

    Although random assignment helps even out baseline differences between groups, it doesn’t always make them completely equivalent. There may still be extraneous variables that differ between groups, and there will always be some group differences that arise from chance.

    Most of the time, the random variation between groups is low, and, therefore, it’s acceptable for further analysis. This is especially true when you have a large sample. In general, you should always use random assignment in experiments when it is ethically possible and makes sense for your study topic.

    Random sampling vs random assignment

    Random sampling and random assignment are both important concepts in research, but it’s important to understand the difference between them.

    Random sampling (also called probability sampling or random selection) is a way of selecting members of a population to be included in your study. In contrast, random assignment is a way of sorting the sample participants into control and experimental groups.

    While random sampling is used in many types of studies, random assignment is only used in between-subjects experimental designs.

    Some studies use both random sampling and random assignment, while others use only one or the other.

    Random sampling enhances the external validity or generalizability of your results, because it helps ensure that your sample is unbiased and representative of the whole population. This allows you to make stronger statistical inferences.

    Example: Random sampling

    You’re studying new interventions for boosting employee engagement in a large company.

    You use a simple random sample to collect data. Because you have access to the whole population (all employees), you can assign all 8000 employees a number and use a random number generator to select 300 employees. These 300 employees are your full sample.

    By using a random sample, you can be reasonably confident that your results are applicable across the whole company.

    Random assignment enhances the internal validity of the study, because it ensures that there are no systematic differences between the participants in each group. This helps you conclude that the outcomes can be attributed to the independent variable.

    Source : www.scribbr.com

    psych u 1 Flashcards

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    How is psychology different from philosophy?

    a)

    Psychology uses the scientific method to answer questions.

    b)

    Psychology is interested in questions related to human behavior.

    c)

    There is no difference between philosophy and psychology.

    d)

    The field of psychology is much older than the field of philosophy.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    A)

    Psychology bases its answers on observations, while philosophy answers its questions using logic and reasoning. Both fields are interested in human behavior. The field of psychology is only 125 years old, while philosophy is much older

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    The first psychology laboratory was opened in ________ in order to study ___________.

    a)

    1865; psychological disorders

    b) 1946; learning c) 1879; introspection d) 1809; biopsychology

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    c

    Wilhelm Wundt opened his laboratory in Germany in 1879 and used the method of introspection to study the basic elements of mental processes

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    Terms in this set (86)

    How is psychology different from philosophy?

    a)

    Psychology uses the scientific method to answer questions.

    b)

    Psychology is interested in questions related to human behavior.

    c)

    There is no difference between philosophy and psychology.

    d)

    The field of psychology is much older than the field of philosophy.

    A)

    Psychology bases its answers on observations, while philosophy answers its questions using logic and reasoning. Both fields are interested in human behavior. The field of psychology is only 125 years old, while philosophy is much older

    The first psychology laboratory was opened in ________ in order to study ___________.

    a)

    1865; psychological disorders

    b) 1946; learning c) 1879; introspection d) 1809; biopsychology c

    Wilhelm Wundt opened his laboratory in Germany in 1879 and used the method of introspection to study the basic elements of mental processes

    The psychological perspective of structuralism focused on

    a)

    how the whole structure is bigger than the individual parts.

    b)

    understanding each individual structure of human thought.

    c)

    how mental thought helps us structure our daily activities.

    d)

    the structure of society at large.

    b

    Structuralists felt that mental processes had to be broken down into their most basic or elemental form in order to be understood.

    The school of psychology called structuralism used a technique called _____, which involved reporting the contents of consciousness to study a person's experiences.

    a) intervention b) introspection c) insight inventory d) induction b

    Introspection was used in an attempt to self-examine the structure of the mind. Although the word intervention looks similar, it has a completely different meaning

    William James believed that mental processes could not be studied as isolated, static events but instead needed to be viewed in terms of how they helped people perform in their daily lives. James was a strong proponent for

    a) structuralism. b) functionalism. c) behaviorism. d)

    the humanistic perspective.

    b

    James believed we need to understand the function of mental processes.

    Gestalt psychologists are associated with which of the following sayings?

    a)

    The pineal gland is the seat of the human soul.

    b)

    Psychology should reach into the soul of mankind.

    c)

    Behavior should be broken down into its individual components.

    d)

    The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

    d

    Gestalt psychologists believed that you had to look at the whole picture in order to understand the larger processes of perception and sensation and that it could not be broken down into its smaller components without losing its essence.

    Freud said phobias were ____________ whereas Watson said phobias were __________.

    a) learned; inherited b)

    repressed conflicts; learned

    c) sexual; unconscious d)

    conditioned; unconditioned

    b

    Freud studied repressed (unconscious) conflict and Watson studied observable behavior. Watson did not believe that the unconscious could be studied scientifically.

    A researcher who studies the chemical changes in the brains of patients with depression would be approaching psychology from which perspective?

    a) behaviorist b) psychodynamic c) cognitive d) biopsychological d

    The biopsychological perspective focuses on studying the biological changes that underlie behavior and mental processes.

    One of the reasons psychodynamic theories have persisted over the years is that they are

    a)

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    Chapter 1 Flashcards

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    Chapter 1

    75cards Veronica V. Psychology

    Introduction To Psychology

    The whole is greater than the sum of its parts is a statement associated with the perspective of ________.

    Gestalt psychologists

    61. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables?

    -0.75

    A correlation coefficient is represented by the symbol ________.

    small letter "r"

    A correlation coefficient represents two things: ________ and ________.

    strength; direction of the relationship

    A correlation coefficient shows that alcohol consumption and driving accidents are indeed related. As a result, a researcher could predict ________ if the direction of the relationship is known.

    the number of driving accidents a person has will go up or down based on the number of alcoholic drinks consumed

    A group of randomly selected subjects for a study that matches the population on important characteristics such as age and sex is called ________.

    a representative sample

    A psychologist is interested in finding out why identical twins have different personalities. This psychologist is most interested in the goal of ________.

    explanation

    A researcher stops people at the mall and asks them questions about their attitudes toward gun control. Which research technique is being used?

    survey

    A teacher tells the school psychologist that Kate is late to class, does not turn in her homework, squirms around a lot in her seat, and swings her feet constantly. This is an example of which goal of psychology?

    describing behavior

    After reading about the possible causes of schizophrenia, a scientist thinks that a virus is the most likely cause. What term most accurately describes the scientist's idea?

    hypothesis

    All of the following are accurate statements regarding random assignment EXCEPT__________.

    it is a procedure in which subjects are assigned to a positive correlation or a negative correlation condition

    All of the following variables, except for ________, would likely show a positive correlation.

    alcohol consumption and scores on a driving test

    An operational definition is ________.

    the precise meaning of a term used to describe a variable, such as a type of behavior, that researchers want to measure

    Brock is the star quarterback on his college football team. When scoring his first test, his anatomy professor was surprised that he earned an "A+" because ________.

    research suggests that athletes have poorer performance on tests than non-athletes

    Cognitive neuroscientists can examine the brain with ________.

    PET and MRI

    Critical thinking means making judgments based on ________.

    reason and logical evaluation

    Darley and Latan� (1968) believe that the presence of other people in a distressing situation decreased the likelihood that they would receive help due to ________.

    diffusion of responsibility

    Double-blind studies control for ________.

    both the placebo effect and the experimenter effect

    Dr. Littman-Smith is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in ________.

    naturalistic observation

    Each of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association EXCEPT ________.

    participants cannot be deceived or have information concealed from them at any time during an experiment

    Evolutionary psychology might suggest that certain cognitive strategies and goals are built into the brain because:

    they help humans adapt to their natural environment.

    Freud said phobias were ________ whereas Watson said phobias were ________.

    repressed conflicts; learned

    Humanist Abraham Maslow suggests that when people reach self-actualization, they:

    develop to their fullest potential.

    In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the dependent variable is ________.

    the number of collisions

    In a laboratory, smokers are asked to "drive" using a computerized driving simulator equipped with a stick shift and a gas pedal. The object is to maximize the distance covered by driving as fast as possible on a winding road while avoiding rear-end collisions. Some of the participants smoke a real cigarette immediately before climbing into the driver's seat. Others smoke a fake cigarette without nicotine. You are interested in comparing how many collisions the two groups have. In this study, the independent variable is ________.

    the use of nicotine

    In addition to describing and explaining mental processes and behavior, psychology also attempts to ________ these phenomena.

    predict and control

    In the 1970s, a 13-year-old girl was found locked up in a room, strapped to a potty chair. Since she had grown up in a world without human speech, researchers studied "Genie's" ability to acquire words, grammar, and pronunciation. This type of research is called a________.

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