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    a fire on board a vessel can be extinguished by removing which of the following elements?

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    a fire onboard a vessel can be extinguished by removing which of the following elements

    a fire onboard a vessel can be extinguished by removing which of the following elements ? 1 Boating Flashcards | Quizlet

    a fire onboard a vessel can be extinguished by removing which of the following elements

    a fire onboard a vessel can be extinguished by removing which of the following elements ?

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    Boating Flashcards | Quizlet

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    Afireextinguisherisan activefireprotection device used toextinguishor control smallfires, often in emergency situations.Read more

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    Fire-Extinguishers| Washington Boating Handbook

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    How to prevent and tackle fire onboard ferries

    As fire on board is one of the most dangerous situations that crewmembers can face, the Standard Club has proposed certain practices, aiming to promote better fire safety.

    How to prevent and tackle fire onboard ferries

    by The Editorial Team September 16, 2019

    Credit: Standard Club

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    As fire on board is one of the most dangerous situations that crewmembers can face, the Standard Club has proposed certain practices, aiming to promote better fire safety, and raise awareness of fire risks in general and fire risks on ferries in particular.

    A fire is one of the most frightening things that can happen at sea, while many times seafarers have no easy access to the emergency services when a fire occurs. In this case, they need to rely on their own resources, courage and training to extinguish the blaze fast, and ensure the safety of the ship and everyone on board.

    Ferries in particular, have special risks from the cargo they carry, such as cars, lorries and refrigerated containers. This cargo has combustible material and their own fire dangers, something which a ship’s crew cannot easily control.

    Despite the fact that great attention is paid to fire safety during ferry design and construction, fires take place and when they do, they can spread very quickly. For this reason, it is crucial for the ships’ crews to react quickly to the early signs of any fire and use all available equipment and methodologies in the most efficient and effective way.

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    To achieve this, ships’ crews must have a thorough understanding of the use and limitations of the fire detection/ extinguishing equipment available to them as well as a good knowledge of how these should be used, Standard Club says.

    Causes of fire

    There are several causes of fire but the most relevant to ferries are:

    Electrical defects, such as overloaded electrical equipment, damaged cables and poorly formed connections. Electrical faults in vehicles, especially when engines are hot/running. Reefer containers are major sources of fire;

    Mechanical failure, such as ignition from overheated bearings or a catastrophic engine failure;

    Uncontrolled release of oil or flammable liquid coming into contact with a hot surface, or the release of a low flashpoint fuel, such as petrol vapour, coming into contact with a source of ignition;

    Dry, readily combustible materials (such as wood, paper, textiles) coming into contact with an ignition source, such as a lighted cigarette, sparks or conducted heat from burning or cutting, highintensity lights or defective electrical equipment.

    A ship’s crew can assess fire risk from the ship’s systems and equipment, and take action, but they cannot easily assess fire risk from vehicles. Vehicles have the same or greater fire risk as the ship itself. Namely, they have fuel, cellulosic material and plastics, while faults with their electrical systems are a major source of ignition.

    Moreover, during a fire patrol special attention must be given to vehicles with operating fans (after loading), those with a large volume of cellulose material and any smelling of fuel. These vehicles must be reported to the safety officer.

    Basic firefighting

    Fire is extinguished by removing any of the three elements of the fire triangle – heat, oxygen or fuel:

    Oxygen is removed when a space is closed and sealed, and the oxygen is consumed by the fire. Oxygen can also be displaced by the release of inert gas such as CO2. Foam can restrict oxygen reaching the fuel’s surface;

    Heat is removed by cooling with water, which also generates steam. Steam has a smothering effect by displacing oxygen;

    Fuel, in the form of cargo, packaging and dunnage is difficult to remove from most compartments. Good housekeeping and the removal of unnecessary combustible material is essential.

    Another important factor to consider is that the crew must never enter an enclosed space where a fire has burned without wearing a fireman’s outfit or breathing apparatus, unless the space has cooled and the oxygen content has been verified as safe to enter.

    Ignition of combustible material

    Fire can be caused by a deliberate act. However, most fires are caused by accidental ignition. Some of the most common sources of ignition on ferries are:

    Carelessly discarded smoking material, such as lighted cigarettes and matches • sparks from grinding, cutting, burning or welding;

    Heat directly transferred by conduction to combustible material on the reverse side of a deck or bulkhead – often associated with hot work;

    Malfunctioning or defective electrical equipment, including, but not limited to, vehicle electrics, reefer container electrics or lithium ion batteries;

    Overloaded or overheating electrical circuits and/or connections;

    High-intensity lights, such as halogen lights and switches;

    Hot engine exhausts;

    Mechanical failure, such as catastrophic engine failure, with ignition of escaping oil or ignition from over-heating bearings;

    Portable heaters and cooking equipment;

    Galley equipment, such as deep fat fryers and cookers.

    Source : safety4sea.com

    Boating Accident Reports: When They're Required

    Boat fires can be devastating, but are easily prevented by following simple marine fire safety guidelines. Find more tips & get certified at BOATERexam.com®.

    Marine Fire Safety Guidelines

    Marine Fire Safety Guidelines Marine Fire Emergency: Prevention

    A fire on your boat is a serious emergency that demands quick action.

    Causes of Boat Fires

    What causes a boat fire? All fires need three things to start and keep going:

    Heat, such as a spark from a match,

    Fuel, like gasoline;

    And oxygen, like the air you breathe.

    You can find all three of these things in and around most boats.

    Gasoline fumes, which are heavier than air, can easily collect in the hull of a boat if there isn't proper ventilation. Just add a spark from an ignition and you could have a boat fire on your hands.

    Removing any of these three sources will also let you extinguish the fire. We'll remember that as we learn what to do in the case of a fire on your boat.

    Marine Fire Emergency: Response

    If you are boating and a fire starts on board, here is what to do:

    Stop the engine immediately! This is always the first thing to do in case of a boat fire.

    Position your boat so that the wind blows the fire away from your boat. This will help prevent the fire from spreading and minimize smoke inhalation for you and your passengers.

    If possible, separate the fuel source from the fire. For example, shut off the gas to the engine or disconnect the gas tank.

    Grab your marine-rated fire extinguisher and do the following:

    Aim the extinguisher at the base of the fire.

    Then, pull the pin and squeeze the two levers together to engage the extinguisher.

    Take down all pertinent information, including the date, time and conditions; and

    Now, use a sweeping motion while focusing on the base of the fire.

    Continue using the extinguisher until the fire is completely out.

    Nice work! You've put out the fire. Now, it's time to get to shore safely.

    Use a distress signal or your marine radio to notify other boaters that you need help.

    Cold Water Immersion

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    Running Aground Prevention

    Source : www.boaterexam.com

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