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    a certain skin cream is 80 percent effective in curing a common rash. a random sample of 100 people with the rash will use the cream. which of the following is the best description of the shape of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion of those who will be cured?


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    get a certain skin cream is 80 percent effective in curing a common rash. a random sample of 100 people with the rash will use the cream. which of the following is the best description of the shape of the sampling distribution of the sample proportion of those who will be cured? from EN Bilgi.

    Rash Evaluation: MedlinePlus Medical Test

    A rash evaluation is used to diagnose the cause of a rash. A rash is an area of red, irritated skin. Most rashes go away with at-home treatment. But sometimes a rash is a sign of a more serious condition and should be checked by a health care provider. Learn more.

    What is a rash evaluation?

    A rash evaluation is a test to find out what is causing a rash. A rash, also known as dermatitis, is an area of skin that is red, irritated, and usually itchy. A skin rash may also be dry, scaly, and/or painful. Most rashes happen when your skin touches a substance that irritates it. This is known as contact dermatitis. There are two main types of contact dermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis.

    Allergic contact dermatitis happens when your body's immune system treats a normally harmless substance as if it were a threat. When exposed to the substance, the immune system sends out chemicals in response. These chemicals affect your skin, causing you to develop a rash. Common causes of allergic contact dermatitis include:

    Allergic contact dermatitis usually causes itching that can be severe.

    Irritant contact dermatitis happens when a chemical substance damages an area of skin. This causes a skin rash to form. Common causes of irritant contact dermatitis include:

    Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.

    In addition to contact dermatitis, a rash may be caused by:

    Other names: patch test, skin biopsy

    Rash Evaluation: MedlinePlus Medical Test

    Source : medlineplus.gov

    Dermatographia: Causes and treatment of skin writing

    Dermatographia is also known as 'skin writing', and is characterized by the skin raising in response to pressure. They tend to get worse at night and are affected by irritation and rubbing. This MNT Knowledge Center article explores the causes, symptoms, and treatments.

    Hives often appears as a raised, itchy rash. There can be many causes, including exposure to an allergen, a physical trigger, such as pressure from tight clothing, or an underlying health condition.

    The medical name for hives is “urticaria.” People also call it welts, wheals, or nettle rash.

    Hives affects around 20% of people at some time in their lives. The issue can be chronic or acute. Acute hives lasts 6 weeksTrusted SourceTrusted Source or less, and it may result from exposure to an allergen or irritant, such as a food or touching a nettle.

    Chronic urticaria is a long-term condition. Doctors do not know exactly why it happens, but it may accompany a chronic health condition or an autoimmune condition. A person with chronic urticaria may have hives every day for months or years.

    It is not possible to catch hives from another person. However, in some cases, hives occurs with a contagious infection.

    If a person has hives, they have a risk of developing a life threatening condition called anaphylaxis. Being aware of other symptoms of this condition, such as swelling of the face, tongue, or throat, a rapid heartbeat, or lightheadedness is important. Anyone who might have anaphylaxis should receive urgent medical care.

    Below, we explore hives and its treatments in detail.

    Dermatographia: Causes and treatment of skin writing

    Source : www.medicalnewstoday.com

    Plants used to treat skin diseases

    Skin diseases are numerous and a frequently occurring health problem affecting all ages from the neonates to the elderly and cause harm in number of ways. Maintaining healthy skin is important for a healthy body. Many people may develop skin diseases ...


    Natural drugs from the plants are gaining popularity because of several advantages such as often having fewer side-effects, better patient tolerance, being relatively less expensive and acceptable due to a long history of use. Besides herbal medicines provide rational means for the treatment of many diseases that are obstinate and incurable in other systems of medicine. For these reasons several plants have been investigated for treatment of skin diseases ranging from itching to skin cancer. So far 31 plants have been reported to be effective in various skin diseases during the past 17 years (1995-2012) of research work, which are mentioned below.

    Achyranthes aspera (Common name: Prickly chaff flower, Devil's horsewhip; Family: Amaranthaceae)

    Traditionally, the plant is used in boils, scabies and eruptions of skin and other skin diseases. The MeOH extract, alkaloid, non-alkaloid and saponin fractions obtained from the leaves of A. aspera exhibited significant inhibitory effects (concentration 100 μg) on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. In this in vitro assay the non-alkaloid fraction containing mainly non-polar compounds showed the most significant inhibitory activity (96.9%; 60% viability). In the in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test the total methanolic extract possessed a pronounced ant carcinogenic effect (76%). The results revealed that leaf extract and the non-alkaloid fraction are valuable antitumor promotors in carcinogenesis.[8]

    Allium cepa (Common name: Onion; Family: Liliacea)

    A study undertaken in patients with seborrheic keratoses to evaluate the ability of onion extract gel to improve the appearance of scars following excision, has shown that this extract gel improved scar softness, redness, texture and global appearance at the excision site at study weeks 4, 6 and 10 as assessed by the blinded investigator.[9]

    In another study, the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts prepared from A. cepa (onion; AOE) and Allium sativum (garlic; AGE) were evaluated against Malassezia furfur (25 strains), Candida albicans (18 strains), other Candida sp. (12 strains) as well as 35 strains of various dermatophyte species. The results indicated that onion and garlic might be promising in treatment of fungal-associated diseases from important pathogenic genera like Candida, Malassezia and the dermatophytes.[10]

    A. sativum (Common name: Garlic; Family: Liliaceae)

    In a study conducted on Swiss albino mice in whom cancer was induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) revealed that best chemo preventive action of garlic was observed in mice in which garlic treatment was performed before and after the induction of skin carcinogenesis. Garlic ingestion delayed formation of skin papillomas in animals and simultaneously decreased the size and number of papillomas, which was also reflected in the skin histology of the treated mice. The protective effect against skin cancer elicited by garlic in mice is believed to be due at least in part to the induction of cellular defense systems.[11]

    Aloe vera (Common name: Barbados aloe; Family: Xanthorrhoeaceae)

    Aloe vera has shown very good results in skin diseases and it is often taken as health drink. It is also found effective in treating wrinkles, stretch marks and pigmentations. It also seems to be able to speed wound healing by improving blood circulation through the area and preventing cell death around a wound. One of the studies conducted on mice to investigate the effects of Scutellariae radix and Aloe vera gel (AV), in spontaneous atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions revealed that the group receiving only AV in a dose of 0.8 mg/kg p.o provided relief in AD due to reduction of interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-10 levels.[12]

    The gel has properties that are harmful to certain types of bacteria and fungi. A cream containing 0.5% aloe for 4 weeks reduced the skin “plaques” associated with psoriasis.[13] Application of gel helped in the improvement of partial thickness burns.[14] When applied to the skin, the gel seems to help skin survive frostbite injury.[15] It might delay the appearance of skin damage during and after radiation treatment.[16]

    Azadirachta indica (Common name: Neem; Family: Meliaceae)

    Leaf extract is applied externally on boils and blisters.[17] In one study, skin tumors were induced in mice by topical application of DMBA (500 nmol/100 μl for 2 weeks) followed by TPA (1.7 nmol/100 μl of acetone, twice weekly) as a promoter. The test group received aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) orally at a dose level of 300 mg/kg body weight three times a week for 20 weeks. The results of this study revealed the chemopreventive potential of A. indica against murine skin carcinogenesis.[18]

    Study designed to determine the modulatory effect of aqueous AAILE on cell cycle-associated proteins during two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice in which skin tumors were induced by topical application of DMBA as a carcinogen followed by the repetitive application of TPA as a promoter. Skin tumors obtained in the DMBA/TPA group exhibited enhanced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, index of proliferation), p21 and cyclin D1, with no alterations in p53 expression in comparison to the control group. Tumors in AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited low PCNA and cyclin D1 expression and enhanced expression of p53 and p21 in comparison to the DMBA/TPA group. The skin tumors obtained in the AAILE + DMBA/TPA group exhibited high lipid peroxidation levels in comparison to the tumors obtained in the DMBA/TPA group. The observations of the study suggested that AAILE behaves as a pro-oxidant in the tumors, thereby rendering them susceptible to damage, which eventually culminates into its anti-neoplastic action. Also, cell cycle regulatory proteins may be modulated by AAILE and could affect the progression of cells through the cell cycle.[19]

    Another study, conducted on an anti-acne moisturizer formulated from herbal crude extracts and investigated for the physico-chemical parameters as well as antibacterial activity of the formulation, revealed that ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ocimum sanctum, A. indica and Green tea possessed the potential for inhibiting acne. It was observed that the optimal formula of anti-acne moisturizer was satisfactorily effective to control acne inducing bacteria i.e., Staphylococcus epidermis and Propionibacterium.[20]

    Bauhinia variegata (Common name: Kachanar, Orchid tree, Camel's Foot Tree, Mountain Ebony; Family: Fabaceae)

    The bark is internally administered for treating skin diseases, asthma, sore throat, diarrhea and abdominal discomfort and also applied externally for skin ulcers. In the skin papilloma model, significant prevention, with delayed appearance and reduction in the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in the DMBA + Kachanar + croton oil treated group as compared to the DMBA + croton oil group. C57 Bl mice which received a 50% methanolic extract of Kachanar extract at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span and tumor size was significantly reduced as compared to controls. In anti-mutagenic studies, a single application of Kachanar extract at doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg dry weight, 24 h prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide (at 50 mg/kg) significantly prevented micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice, in a dose dependent manner.[21]

    Beta vulgaris (Common name: Beetroot; Family: Brassicaceae)

    The in vitro inhibitory effect of beet root extract on EBV-EA induction using Raji cells revealed a high order of activity compared to capsanthin, cranberry, red onion skin and short and long red bell peppers. An in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity evaluation against the mice skin and lung bioassays also revealed a significant tumor inhibitory effect. The combined findings suggest that beet-root ingestion can be one of the useful means to prevent cancer.[22]

    Brassica oleraceae (Common name: Red Cabbage; Family: Brassicaceae)

    Significant reduction of tumors was observed in mice in whom skin cancer was induced by a single topical application of 200 nmol of the initiator DMBA to their backs, followed 1 week later by promotion with 10 nmol of TPA twice weekly for 30 weeks followed by 0.1 g/L of aqueous extract of B. oleraceae 1 week after administration of initiator.[23]

    Calendula officinalis (Common name: Marigold; Family: Asteraceae)

    The flowers of marigold have long been employed in folk therapy and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the flowers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal inflammatory diseases of several origins. Topical formulations containing marigold extract (ME), evaluated in hairless mice against UV-B irradiation-induced photo damage, revealed that application of ME in gel formulation, containing 0.21 μg/cm of narcissin and as 0.07 μg/cm of the rutin in the viable epidermis, were associated with a possible improvement in the collagen synthesis in the sub epidermal connective tissue.[24]

    One of the experiments carried out in 34 patients with venous leg ulcers to determine the therapeutic efficacy of ME on the epithelialization of lower leg venous ulcers revealed significant acceleration of wound healing by producing epithelialization.[25] Research conducted on cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts, revealed that such creams are effective in experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis when tested on healthy human volunteers.[26]

    Camellia sinensis (Common name: Green tea, Chaay; Family: Theaceae)

    Green tea comes from the tea plant C. sinensis and may play a beneficial role in treatment of skin tumours and cancer. It contains polyphenols, which act as antioxidants in the body. A specific polyphenol in Green tea called epigallocatechin gallate, according to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, has been reported to prevent the onset of further growth of skin tumor in the body. It can rejuvenate old skin cells to start reproducing again, keeping the skin younger looking.[27]

    Cannabis sativus (Common name: Charas, Ganja; Family: Cannabinaceae)

    The powder of the leaves serves as a dressing for wounds and sores. Ganja is externally applied to relieve pain in itchy skin diseases. Hemp seed oil is useful for treatment of eczema and host of other skin diseases like dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis/cradle cap, varicose eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus and acne roseacea. By using hemp seed oil, the skin is strengthened and made better able to resist bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Crushed leaves are rubbed on the affected areas to control scabies.[16]

    Crocus sativus (Common name: Saffron; Family: Iridaceae)

    Saffron is a naturally derived plant product that acts as an antispasmodic, diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogic and sedative. The chemopreventive effect of aqueous saffron on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis using a histopathological approach was studied. Its ingestion inhibited the formation of skin papillomas in animals and simultaneously reduced their size. Saffron inhibited DMBA-induced skin carcinoma in mice when treated early. This may be due, at least in part, to the induction of cellular defense systems.[28] It has also been found useful in treatment of psoriasis.[29]

    Curcuma longa (Common name: Turmeric; Family: Zingiberaceae)

    A study conducted on male Swiss albino mice in whom skin cancer was induced by topical application of DMBA, revealed a significant reduction in number of tumors per mouse in the group receiving 1% curcumin obtained from rhizomes of C. longa.[30]

    Daucus carota (Common name: Carrot; Family: Apiaceae)

    A study, conducted to investigate the chemopreventive effects of oil extract of D. carota umbels on DMBA-induced skin cancer in mice for 20 weeks, revealed significant reduction in tumor incidence following administration via intraperitonial (0.3 ml of 2% oil) and topical (0.2 ml of 5, 50 and 100% oil) but least with gavage (0.02 ml of 100% oil).[31]

    Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea purpurea (Common name: Purple cone flower; Family: Asteraceae)

    Echinacea has been applied to and used to treat skin problems such as skin boils, wounds, ulcers, burns, herpes, hemorrhoids and psoriasis. Forms of Echinacea include tablets, juice and tea.[27] A study conducted on patients to determine the effect of oral supplementation with a nutraceutical, containing methionine, Echinacea, zinc, probiotics and other antioxidant and immunostimulating compounds, on the response of cutaneous warts revealed a significant reduction of warts in such patients.[32]

    The herbal extract of E. purpurea (Echinaforce®), readily killed a standard laboratory strain of Propionibacterium acnes (main cause of acne) and several clinical isolates. In cell culture models of human bronchial epithelial cells and skin fibroblasts, P. acne induced the secretion of substantial amounts of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-8 (CXCL8), as determined by means of cytokine-antibody arrays. However, the E. purpurea completely reversed this effect and brought the cytokine levels back to normal. Thus Echinaforce® could provide a safe two-fold benefit to acne individuals by inhibiting proliferation of the organism and reversing the bacterial-induced inflammation.[33]

    Eucalyptus globulus (Common name: Blue gum, Camphor oil; Family: Myrtaceae)

    In a study conducted on humans it was revealed that human facial demodicidosis when treated with freshly prepared camphor oil with or without glycerol dilutions gave complete cure with concentrations of 100%, 75% and 50% respectively.[34] Study conducted on humans revealed that camphor oil with or without glycerol dilutions completely cured zoonotic scabies with concentrations of 100%, 75% and 50% within 5-10 days.[35]

    Euphorbia walachii, Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia tirucalli (Common name: Wallich spurge; Fam. Euphorbiaceae)

    Juice of E. walachii is used to treat warts and skin infections.[36] A study, conducted on various species of Euphorbia, E. hirta, exhibited best antioxidant activity. The plant extracts showed more activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The best antimicrobial activity was shown by E. tirucalli. The study supported the folkloric use of E. hirta and E. tirucalli against some skin diseases caused by oxidative stress or by microorganisms.[37]

    Ficus carica, Ficus racemosa, Ficus bengaalensis (Common name: Fig; Family: Moraceae)

    In some rural areas of Iran, a traditional method for the treatment of warts comprises the use of fig tree (F. carica) latex. A study conducted in patients with warts has revealed that this therapy of warts offers several beneficial effects including short-duration therapy, no reports of any side-effects, ease-of-use, patient compliance and a low recurrence rate. Although, exact mechanism of the antiwart activity of fig tree latex is unclear it is likely to be the result of the proteolytic activity of the latex enzymes.[38] F. recemosa L. bark powder is used externally in case of pimples, itches and scabies and F. bengaalensis L. bark powder is also used externally to cure scabies.[17]

    Lavendula officinalis (Common name: Lavender; Family: Labiatae)

    The effects of lavender oil (1:500, 1:100, 1:10, 1:1, 1:0) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in mice and rats have been studied. It has been reported to inhibit concentration-dependently the histamine release from the peritoneal mast cells. It also inhibits immediate-type allergic reactions by inhibition of mast cell degranulation in vivo and in vitro when tested on mice and rats.[39]

    Lawsonia inermis (Common name: Henna; Family: Lythraceae)

    Henna is a traditionally used plant of Middle-East that is applied on hands and feet. In the traditional system of medicine, leaf paste is applied twice a day, on the affected parts to cure impetigo.[40] In a study, clinical improvement in the patients suffering from hand and foot disease due to use of capecitabine, an anti-cancer drug, with use of henna revealed anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic effects of henna.[41]

    Lycopersicon esculentum (Common name: Tomato; Family: Solanaceae)

    A study conducted on healthy human volunteers using tomato paste (40 g), providing approximately 16 mg/d of lycopene, ingested with 10 g of olive oil over a period of 10 weeks has revealed that it is feasible to achieve protection against UV light-induced erythema by ingestion of a commonly consumed dietary source of lycopene.[42]

    Another study conducted in healthy human volunteers using 55 g of tomato paste containing 16 mg of lycopene ingested with olive oil, also revealed that tomato paste containing lycopene provides protection against acute and potentially longer-term aspects of photo damage.[43]

    Mangifera indica (Common name: Mango; Family: Anacardiaceae)

    The gum is used in dressings for cracked feet and for scabies. Latex is applied to cure ulcers.[17] Aqueous extract of stem-bark (MIE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05-0.001) anti-inflammatory effect against fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema in rats.[44]

    Matricaria chamomile, Matricaria recutita or Chamomilla recutita (Common name: Chamomile; Family: Asteraceae)

    It aids in skin cell regeneration and acts as an antioxidant, fighting free radical damage on the skin. Free radicals are a dangerous oxygen by-product of cellular metabolism. There have been allergies reported and those with daisy allergies may find themselves allergic to chamomile.[27] A controlled study of 161 individuals found chamomile cream equally effective as 0.25% hydrocortisone cream for the treatment of eczema.[45] In a double-blind study, chamomile cream proved less effective for reducing inflammation of the skin than hydrocortisone cream or witch hazel cream.[46]

    Finally, in a single-blind trial, 50 women receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer were treated with either chamomile or placebo. Chamomile failed to prove superior to placebo for preventing skin inflammation caused by the radiation therapy.[47]

    Mirabilis jalapa (Common name: Four o’clock flower, Marvel of Peru; Family: Nctaginaceae)

    M. jalapa is used traditionally in allergic skin disorders and asthma. A study, employing ethanol: acetone (1:1) extract of the roots of M. jalapa, revealed that the extract (0.5 mL of 100 mg mL[-1]) inhibited histamine-induced guinea pig tracheal chain contractions non-competitively. The extract (100 or 200 mg kg[-1] i.p.) inhibited milk-induced eosinophilia, albumin-induced paw edema and protected mast cells against clonidine-induced granulation justifying the folkloric use of M. jalapa in the treatment of allergic diseases and asthma.[48]

    Momordica charantia (Common name: Bitter gourd; Family: Cucurbitaceae)

    Topical application of the fruit extract of (100 μl/animal/day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by DMBA and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) tumor burden to 4.26, 3.72 and 3.11 (positive control value: 5.42); (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 81, 67 and 53 (positive control value: 103); and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 100, 94 and 94, respectively (positive control value: 100). In a comparison of the anticarcinogenic efficacy of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract (100 μl/animal/day), after topical treatment during the peri-initiation and during the tumor promotion stage, revealed the modulation of the (i) tumor burden (tumors/mouse) to 3.06, 3.61, 3.17 and 3.11; (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 49, 65, 54 and 53; and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 84, 100, 94 and 94, respectively.[49]

    Plumbago zeylanica (Common name: Doctor Bush; Family: Plumbaginaceae)

    Whole plant is crushed with a pinch of salt and the paste is applied externally in case of ringworm.[17] A study conducted on plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-napthoquinone), a medicinal plant-derived naphthoquinone, isolated from the roots of the P. zeylanica revealed that topical application of plumbagin in mice inhibited UV induced development of squamous cell carcinomas.[50]

    Portulaca oleraceae (Common name: Purslane, Pigweed, Little Hogweed; Family: Portulacaceae)

    The herb possesses natural cooling properties that soothe the skin, relieving it of skin inflammations and rashes during scorching heat. Burns and skin eruptions like boils and carbuncles can be treated with an effective concoction of the leaves. Topical application of the aqueous extract on to the skin is effective as antibacterial and antifungal.[51] Externally it is used to treat burns, earache, insect stings, inflammations, skin sores, ulcers, pruritis (itching skin), eczema and abscesses which are usually treated with the fresh herb as a poultice or the expressed juice is used.[51] In Ghana, the leaves are ground, mixed with oil and tied on boils.[52] Sometimes in combination the leaves are also eaten with tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) as a remedy for skin diseases and chancres. Extract of this plant was also found to be effective in treatment of AD using hairless mice.[53]

    Prunus persica (Common name: Peach; Family: Rosaceae)

    Ethanolic extract of the flowers (Ku-35) (50-200 μg/ml) were found to inhibit UVB and UVC induced deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage by the COMET assay in the skin fibroblast cell (NIH/3T3). In addition, Ku-35 inhibited UVB-or UVC-induced lipid peroxidation, especially against UVB-induced peroxidation at higher than 10 μg/ml.[54]

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Common name: Rosemary; Family: Labiatae)

    Rosemary is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavoring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. Chronic UV exposure is responsible for long term clinical manifestations such as photo aging and photo-cancers. Aqueous extract of R. officinalis has been reported to be effective in preventing cutaneous photo damage induced by UV radiations.[55]

    In another study, the antibacterial activity of rosemary essential oil against P. acnes was observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Significant changes in morphology and size of P. acnes were observed by AFM in response to essential oil treatment. Rosemary oil has also been seen to be effective against P. acnes, a bacterium causing acne.[56] Application of methanol extract of leaves of rosemary to mouse skin inhibited the covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] to epidermal DNA and inhibited tumor initiation by B(a)P and DMBA.[57]

    Sarco asoca (Common name: Ashoka; Family: Caesalpinaceae)

    Paste of the roots is useful in freckles and external inflammations, ulcers and skin diseases. It is used for itching in eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis and herpes-kushta/visarpa by rubbing the crushed flower on the skin. It is a favorite herb to relieve pruritis, scabies and tinea pedis. 50 g of the dried flowers of S. asoca and the leaves of L. inermis are boiled in coconut oil and the extract is externally applied twice a day to treat eczema and scabies. A study revealed that pretreatment with the flavanoid fraction of S. asoca caused significant reduction in the number of tumors per mouse and the percentage of tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, the latency period for the appearance of the first tumor was delayed by S. asoca pretreatment. A significant reduction in the expression of ornithine decarboxylase, a key enzyme in the promotion stage of 2-stage skin cancer, in the plant-treated group was also observed suggesting the chemopreventive activity of flavonoids from S. asoca on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis.[58]

    Thyme vulgaris (Common name: Thyme; Family: Lamiaceae)

    It may relieve the symptoms of cellulitis, an infection of the skin caused by bacteria which can lead to pain, tenderness, edema, fever, chills and reddening of the skin. It may also offer anti-fungal and antibacterial benefits. However, the University of Maryland Medical Center cautions that thyme has not been proven to specifically benefit cellulitis. In addition, this herb may raise the risk of bleeding.[27]

    Plants used to treat skin diseases

    Source : www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

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