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    _____ occur when warm, dry wind flows down a slope, whereas _____ occur when cold, dense air flows down a slope.

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    _____ occur when warm, dry wind flows down a slope, whereas _____ occur when cold, dense air flows down a

    _____ occur when warm, dry wind flows down a slope, whereas _____ occur when cold, dense air flows down a slope.

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    Air Movement

    Air Movement

    Air Movement Lesson Objectives

    List the properties of the air currents within a convection cell.

    Describe how high and low pressure cells create local winds and explain how several types of local winds form.

    Discuss how global convection cells lead to the global wind belts.

    Vocabulary

    advection

    Chinook winds (Foehn winds)

    haboob high pressure zone jet stream katabatic winds land breeze low pressure zone monsoon mountain breeze polar front rainshadow effect Santa Ana winds sea breeze valley breeze

    Introduction

    A few basic principles go a long way toward explaining how and why air moves: Warm air rising creates a low pressure zone at the ground. Air from the surrounding area is sucked into the space left by the rising air. Air flows horizontally at top of the troposphere; horizontal flow is called advection. The air cools until it descends. Where it reaches the ground, it creates a high pressure zone. Air flowing from areas of high pressure to low pressure creates winds. Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air. Air moving at the bases of the three major convection cells in each hemisphere north and south of the equator creates the global wind belts.

    Air Pressure and Winds

    Within the troposphere are convection cells (Figure below).

    Warm air rises, creating a low pressure zone; cool air sinks, creating a high pressure zone.

    Air that moves horizontally between high and low pressure zones makes wind. The greater the pressure difference between the pressure zones the faster the wind moves.

    Convection in the atmosphere creates the planet’s weather. When warm air rises and cools in a low pressure zone, it may not be able to hold all the water it contains as vapor. Some water vapor may condense to form clouds or precipitation. When cool air descends, it warms. Since it can then hold more moisture, the descending air will evaporate water on the ground.

    Air moving between large high and low pressure systems creates the global wind belts that profoundly affect regional climate. Smaller pressure systems create localized winds that affect the weather and climate of a local area.

    An online guide to air pressure and winds from the University of Illinois is found here: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/%28Gh%29/guides/mtr/fw/home.rxml.

    Local Winds

    Local winds result from air moving between small low and high pressure systems. High and low pressure cells are created by a variety of conditions. Some local winds have very important effects on the weather and climate of some regions.

    Land and Sea Breezes

    Since water has a very high specific heat, it maintains its temperature well. So water heats and cools more slowly than land. If there is a large temperature difference between the surface of the sea (or a large lake) and the land next to it, high and low pressure regions form. This creates local winds.

    Sea breezes blow from the cooler ocean over the warmer land in summer (Figure below). Where is the high pressure zone and where is the low pressure zone? Sea breezes blow at about 10 to 20 km (6 to 12 miles) per hour and lower air temperature much as 5 to 10°C (9 to 18°F).Land breezes blow from the land to the sea in winter. Where is the high pressure zone and where is the low pressure zone? Some warmer air from the ocean rises and then sinks on land, causing the temperature over the land to become warmer.

    How do sea and land breezes moderate coastal climates?

    Land and sea breezes create the pleasant climate for which Southern California is known. The effect of land and sea breezes are felt only about 50 to 100 km (30 to 60 miles) inland. This same cooling and warming effect occurs to a smaller degree during day and night, because land warms and cools faster than the ocean.

    Monsoon Winds

    Monsoon winds are larger scale versions of land and sea breezes; they blow from the sea onto the land in summer and from the land onto the sea in winter. Monsoon winds are occur where very hot summer lands are next to the sea. Thunderstorms are common during monsoons (Figure below).

    In the southwestern United States relatively cool moist air sucked in from the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf of California meets air that has been heated by scorching desert temperatures.

    The most important monsoon in the world occurs each year over the Indian subcontinent. More than two billion residents of India and southeastern Asia depend on monsoon rains for their drinking and irrigation water. Back in the days of sailing ships, seasonal shifts in the monsoon winds carried goods back and forth between India and Africa.

    Source : courses.lumenlearning.com

    The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually wet weather The

    The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually wet weather The from GGY 230 at University of North Carolina, Wilmington

    The eastern coast of australia would be experiencing

    University of North Carolina, Wilmington

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    The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually wet weather.The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually cool weather.The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually dry weather.The eastern coast of Australia would be experiencing unusually warm weather.

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    3/18/16, 10:47 AMChapter 7 QuizPage 13 of 15What is the Southern Oscillation?CorrectPart GUnder which conditions are droughts and wildfires common in Australia?CorrectPart HWhat is the overall effect of the stronger than normal trade winds typical of La Niña conditions?Chapter 7 Reading Quiz Question 13

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    Pacific Ocean, La Ni A, Equator

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