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    _____ is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

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    Learning A systematic , relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

    Behaviorism A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of mental activity such as thinking, wishing, and hoping.

    Associative Learning Learning that oocurs when an organism makes a connection or an association, between two events.

    Obsevational Learning Learning that occurs through observing and imitating another's behavior.

    Classical Conditioning Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response.

    Unconditioned Stimulus (US) A stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.

    Unconditioned Response (UR) An unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.

    Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a conditioned response after being paired with the conditioned stimulus.

    Conditioned Response (CR) The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus- unconditioned stimulus pairing.

    Acquisition The initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired.

    Generalization (in classical conditioning) The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.

    Discrimination (in classical conditioning) The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others.

    Extinction (in classical conditioning) The weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.

    Spontaneous Recovery The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning.

    Renewal The recovery of the conditioned response when the organism is placed in a novel context.

    Counterconditioning A classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response.

    Aversive Conditioning A form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus.

    Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.

    Operant Conditioned or Instrumental Conditioning A form of associate learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence

    Law of Effect Thorndike's law stating that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors folowed by negative outcomes are weakened.

    Shaping Rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior.

    Reinforcement The process by which a stimulus or event (a reinforcer) folowing a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.

    Positive Reinforcement The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.

    Negative Reinforcement The removal of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.

    Avoidance Learning An organism's learning that it can altogether avoid negative a negative stimulus by making a particular response.

    Learned Helplessness An organism's learning through experience with negative stimuli that it has no control over negative outcomes.

    Primary Reinforcer A reinforcer that is innately satisfying; one that does not take any learning on the organism's part to make it pleasurable.

    Secondary Reinforcer A reinforcer that acquires its positive value through an organism's experience; a secondary reinforcer is a learned or conditioned reinforcer.

    Generalization(In Operant Conditioning) Performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation.

    Discrimination( In Operant Conditioning) Responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.

    Extinction( In Operant Conditioning) Decreases in the frequency of a behavior when the behavior is no longer reinforced.

    Schedules of Reinforcement Specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced.

    Punishment A consequence that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.

    Positive Punishment The presentation of a stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior.

    Negative Punishment The removal of stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior.

    Applied Behavior Analysis or Behavior Modification The use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior.

    Latent Learning or Implicit Learning Unreinforced learning that is not immediately reflected in behavior.

    Insight Learning A form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problem's solution.

    Instinctive Drift The tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning.

    Preparedness The species-specific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others.

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    Psychology Chapter 5: Learning Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards terms like Learning, Types of Learning, Behaviorism and more.

    Psychology Chapter 5: Learning

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    Learning

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    Learning is a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

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    Types of Learning

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    1) Associative learning is learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection, or an association, between two events --> Conditioning is the process of learning these associations.

    2) Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing and imitating another's behavior --> Relies on mental processes: pay attention, remember, and reproduce.

    Human infants differ from baby animals because of their reliance on imitation.

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    Terms in this set (26)

    Learning

    Learning is a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

    Types of Learning

    1) Associative learning is learning that occurs when an organism makes a connection, or an association, between two events --> Conditioning is the process of learning these associations.

    2) Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing and imitating another's behavior --> Relies on mental processes: pay attention, remember, and reproduce.

    Human infants differ from baby animals because of their reliance on imitation.

    Behaviorism

    Behaviorism is a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping --> Maintains that principles of learning are the same in animals and humans.

    Classical Conditioning

    Classical conditioning is a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an innately meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response --> It is a form of respondent behavior.

    Measures of classical conditioning

    1) An unconditioned stimulus (US) is the unlearned part of classical conditioning, a stimuli that produces a response without prior learning, they're innate/inborn. Reflexes are automatic stimulus-response connections. Such as salvation in response to food, nausea in response to spoiled food, etc.

    2) An unconditioned response (UR) is an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulus, involuntary and happen without conscious effort.

    3) A conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicits a response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

    4) A conditioned response (CR) is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus - unconditioned stimulus pairing.

    Pavlov's Dogs

    (Example of classical conditioning). Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov studied what caused dogs to salivate, and presented a working experiment for classical conditioning. Experiment:

    Dogs before conditioning: US: food --> UR: dog salivates, Neutral stimulus: bell --> No response: no salivation

    During Conditioning: Neutral stimulus: bell + US: food --> UR: dog salivates

    After conditioning: CS: bell --> CR: dog salivates

    Steps of Classical Conditioning

    1) Acquisition is the initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these two stimuli are paired. Contiguity and contingency must be present for CS + US = response in CS.

    2) Generalization is the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response.

    3) Discrimination is the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others.

    4) Extinction is the weakening of the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.

    Explaining Fears

    (Classical Conditioning in Humans). Fears can be learned through classical conditioning. Ex: Albert and fear of animals.

    Breaking Habits

    (Classical Conditioning in Humans). Counterconditioning is a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response. Aversive conditioning is a form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus.

    Placebo Effect

    (Classical Conditioning in Humans). The placebo effect is the effect of a substance or procedure that researchers use as a control to identify the actual effects of a treatment. Placebo effects are observable changes that cannot be explained by the effects of the actual treatment.

    Immune and Endocrine Systems

    (Classical Conditioning in Humans). Immunosuppression is a decrease in the production of antibodies which can lower a person's ability to fight disease. Placebo pills can influence the secretion of hormones if patient had previous experiences with pills containing actual drugs that affected hormone secretion.

    Drug Habituation

    (Classical Conditioning in Humans). Habituation is the decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.

    Operant Conditioning

    Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behavior's occurrence. Concept was developed by American psychologist B.F. Skinner to describe behavior. Idea that an operant behavior occurs spontaneously and the consequences that follow decide whether such a behavior will be repeated.

    Source : quizlet.com

    Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

    Behavioralism Psychological perspective that emphasizing the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that babies are tabula rasa and the study of psychology should focus purely on observable behaviors and not unobservable thoughts.

    Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

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    Long lasting change in behavior due to experience. Learning Long lasting change in behavior due to experience.

    PSYCHOLOGY: LEARNING Learning- the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors.

    Behavioralism Psychological perspective that emphasizing the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that.

    Behavioralism Psychological perspective that emphasizes the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that.

    Presentation on theme: "Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience."— Presentation transcript:

    1 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

    2 Behavioralism Psychological perspective that emphasizing the role of learning and experience in determining behavior. A strict behavioralist believes that babies are tabula rasa and the study of psychology should focus purely on observable behaviors and not unobservable thoughts.

    3 How do we learn? Most learning is associative learning

    Learning that certain events occur together.

    4 Social Cognitive Learning Theory

    Learning The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior We are here Classical Conditioning The type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes to be elicited by a different formally neutral stimulus Operant Conditioning The type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishments Social Cognitive Learning Theory The type of learning in which behaviors are learned by observing a model Pavlov and Watson B.F. Skinner Albert Bandura UCS, UCR, CS, CR Reinforcement and Punishment Modeling and Vicarious Learning

    5 Which is which? 1. A child is attacked by a dog. The child now fears all dogs. 2. You do your homework every night to get good grades and avoid punishment. Classical – involuntary, stimulus precedes behavior Operant – voluntary, stimulus follows behavior

    6 Classical Conditioning

    Ivan Pavlov An INVOLUNTARY behavior is determined by what PRECEDES it.

    7 Dogs must have LEARNED to salivate.

    This is passive learning (automatic…learner does NOT have to think).-It does exist! 

    8 Unconditioned Stimulus (US): a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response.

    Unconditional Response (UR): the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.

    9 Classical Conditioning

    Next you find a neutral stimulus (something that by itself elicits no response). You present the stimulus with the UCS a whole bunch of times.

    10 Classical Conditioning

    After a while, the body begins to link together the neutral stimulus with the UCS. Acquisition

    11 Classical Conditioning

    We know learning takes places when the previously neutral stimulus elicits a response. At this point the neutral stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditional response becomes the conditioned response (CR).

    12 Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally neutral stimulus (NS) that, after association with the UCS, comes to trigger a response. Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

    13 Identifying Parts Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Meat powder

    Unconditioned Response (UCR) Salivation Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Bell Conditioned Response (CR) * Hint: replace “conditioned” with “learned” to make it more intuitive.

    15 Things to Remember: The responses (UR & CR) are always the same.

    The NS and the CS are always the same. The NS becomes the CS through learning.

    16 A friend has learned to associate the sound of a dentist’s drill to a fearful reaction because of a painful experience she had getting a root canal. In this example, what is the: UCS? Pain from the drill UCR? Fear CS? Sound of the drill CR? Fear

    17 UCS? Pretty people UCR? Feeling good CS? Sight of BMW CR? Feeling good

    A BMW commercial has lots of pretty people in it. People who watch the commercial find the people pleasing to look at. With repeated viewing, they begin to associate the car with the pleasant feeling. UCS? Pretty people UCR? Feeling good CS? Sight of BMW CR? Feeling good

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