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    in which kind of solution is the concentration of solutes the same inside and outside of the cell? isotonic hypertonic hypotonic concentrated

    get in which kind of solution is the concentration of solutes the same inside and outside of the cell? isotonic hypertonic hypotonic concentrated from EN Bilgi.

    Isotonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Hypertonic Solution

    The effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic extracellular environments on plant and animal cells is the same. However, due to the cell walls of plants, the visible effects differ. Although some effects can be seen, the rigid cell wall can hide the magnitude of what is going on inside.

    Isotonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Hypertonic Solution

    By: BD Editors

    Reviewed by: BD Editors

    Last Updated: October 4, 2019

    The effects of isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic extracellular environments on plant and animal cells is the same. However, due to the cell walls of plants, the visible effects differ. Although some effects can be seen, the rigid cell wall can hide the magnitude of what is going on inside.

    Osmosis and Diffusion

    Osmosis has different meanings in biology and chemistry. For biologists, it refers to the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane. Chemists use the term to describe the movement of water, other solvents, and gases across a semipermeable membrane. Both biologists and chemists define diffusion as the movement of solute particles (dissolved materials) from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.

    How Osmosis Works

    Osmosis is a passive transport system, meaning it requires no energy. It causes water to move in and out of cells depending on the solute concentration of the surrounding environment. This movement is caused by a concentration gradient created when there are different solute concentrations inside and outside the cell. It doesn’t matter what dissolved materials make up the solute, only the overall concentration. It is important to note that cells do not regulate the movement of water molecules in and out of their intracellular fluid. They rely on other systems in the body (such as the kidneys) to provide an isotonic external environment (see below).

    Isotonic Solution

    A cell in an isotonic solution is in equilibrium with its surroundings, meaning the solute concentrations inside and outside are the same (iso means equal in Latin). In this state there is no concentration gradient and therefore, no large movement of water in or out. Water molecules do freely move in and out of the cell, however, and the rate of movement is the same in both directions.

    Hypotonic Solution

    A hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration than inside the cell (the prefix hypo is Latin for under or below). The difference in concentration between the compartments causes water to enter the cell. Plant cells can tolerate this situation better than animal cells. In plants, the large central vacuole fills with water and water also flows into the intercellular space. The combination of these two effects causes turgor pressure which presses against the cell wall causing it to bulge out. The cell wall helps keep the cell from bursting. However, if left in a highly hypertonic solution, an animal cell will swell until it bursts and dies.

    Hypertonic Solution

    In Latin, the prefix hyper means over or above. Hypertonic solutions have a higher solute concentration than inside the cell. This causes water to rush out making the cell wrinkle or shrivel. This is clearly seen in red blood cells undergoing a process called crenation. Plant cells in a hypertonic solution can look like a pincushion because of what’s going on inside. The cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall but remains attached at points called plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata are tiny channels between plant cells that are used for transport and communication. When the inner membrane shrinks, it constricts the plasmodesmata resulting in a condition called plasmolysis.

    Comparison Chart

    Isotonic Solution Hypotonic Solution Hypertonic Solution

    High level of solutes outside of the cell No No Yes

    Low level of solutes outside of the cell No Yes No

    Water movement depends on the type of solute No No No

    If uncontrolled, may lead to cell death No Yes Yes

    Can cause the cell to wrinkle/shrivel No No Yes

    Can cause the cell to swell/burst No Yes No

    In plants, results in plasmolysis No No Yes

    In plants, results in turgor pressure inside the cell No Yes No

    Causes water movement via osmosis No Yes Yes

    Represents a homeostatic state Yes No No

    The image above shows what happens to a cell in isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic solutions.

    References

    OpenStax College. (2018). Anatomy & Physiology. Houston, TX. OpenStax CNX. Retrieved from http://cnx.org/contents/[email protected]

    Tonicity. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 17, 2018 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonicity

    Cite This Article

    MLAAPAChicago

    Biologydictionary.net Editors. "Isotonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Hypertonic Solution." Biology Dictionary, Biologydictionary.net, 22 Apr. 2018, https://biologydictionary.net/isotonic-vs-hypotonic-vs-hypertonic-solution/.

    Biologydictionary.net Editors. (2018, April 22). Isotonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Hypertonic Solution. Retrieved from https://biologydictionary.net/isotonic-vs-hypotonic-vs-hypertonic-solution/

    Biologydictionary.net Editors. "Isotonic vs. Hypotonic vs. Hypertonic Solution." Biology Dictionary. Biologydictionary.net, April 22, 2018. https://biologydictionary.net/isotonic-vs-hypotonic-vs-hypertonic-solution/.

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    Source : biologydictionary.net

    Tonicity: hypertonic, isotonic & hypotonic solutions (article)

    Osmosis and tonicity. Hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions and their effect on cells.

    Introduction

    Have you ever forgotten to water a plant for a few days, then come back to find your once-perky arugula a wilted mess? If so, you already know that water balance is very important for plants. When a plant wilts, it does so because water moves out of its cells, causing them to lose the internal pressure—called turgor pressure—that normally supports the plant.

    Why does water leave the cells? The amount of water outside the cells drops as the plant loses water, but the same quantity of ions and other particles remains in the space outside the cells. This increase in solute, or dissolved particle, concentration pulls the water out of the cells and into the extracellular spaces in a process known as osmosis.

    Formally, osmosis is the net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. This may sound odd at first, since we usually talk about the diffusion of solutes that are dissolved in water, not about the movement of water itself. However, osmosis is important in many biological processes, and it often takes place at the same time that solutes diffuse or are transported. Here, we’ll look in more detail at how osmosis works, as well as the role it plays in the water balance of cells.

    How it works

    Why does water move from areas where solutes are less concentrated to areas where they are more concentrated?

    This is actually a complicated question. To answer it, let’s take a step back and refresh our memory on why diffusion happens. In diffusion, molecules move from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration—not because they’re aware of their surroundings, but simply as a result of probabilities. When a substance is in gas or liquid form, its molecules will be in constant, random motion, bouncing or sliding around one another. If there are lots of molecules of a substance in compartment A and no molecules of that substance in compartment B, it’s very unlikely—impossible, actually—that a molecule will randomly move from B to A. On the other hand, it’s extremely likely that a molecule will move from A to B. You can picture all of those molecules bouncing around in compartment A and some of them making the leap over to compartment B. So, the net movement of molecules will be from A to B, and this will be the case until the concentrations become equal.

    In the case of osmosis, you can once again think of molecules—this time, water molecules—in two compartments separated by a membrane. If neither compartment contains any solute, the water molecules will be equally likely to move in either direction between the compartments. But if we add solute to one compartment, it will affect the likelihood of water molecules moving out of that compartment and into the other—specifically, it will reduce this likelihood.

    Why should that be? There are some different explanations out there. The one that seems to have the best scientific support involves the solute molecules actually bouncing off the membrane and physically knocking the water molecules backwards and away from it, making them less likely to cross

    ^{1,2} 1,2

    start superscript, 1, comma, 2, end superscript

    .

    Regardless of the exact mechanisms involved, the key point is that the more solute water contains, the less apt it will be to move across a membrane into an adjacent compartment. This results in the net flow of water from regions of lower solute concentration to regions of higher solute concentration.

    Illustration of osmosis. A beaker is divided in half by a semi-permeable membrane. In the left—initial—image, the water level is equal on both sides, but there are fewer particles of solute on the left than on the right. In the right—final—image, there has been a net movement of water from the area of lower to the area of higher solute concentration. The water level on the left is now lower than the water level on the right, and the solute concentrations in the two compartments are more equal.

    Image credit: OpenStax Biology

    This process is illustrated in the beaker example above, where there will be a net flow of water from the compartment on the left to the compartment on the right until the solute concentrations are nearly balanced. Note that they will not become perfectly equal in this case because the hydrostatic pressure exerted by the rising water column on the right will oppose the osmotic driving force, creating an equilibrium that stops short of equal concentrations.

    Osmolarity

    Osmolarity describes the total concentration of solutes in a solution. A solution with a low osmolarity has fewer solute particles per liter of solution, while a solution with a high osmolarity has more solute particles per liter of solution. When solutions of different osmolarities are separated by a membrane permeable to water, but not to solute, water will move from the side with lower osmolarity to the side with higher osmolarity.

    Three terms—hyperosmotic, hypoosmotic, and isoosmotic—are used to describe relative osmolarities between solutions. For example, when comparing two solution that have different osmolarities, the solution with the higher osmolarity is said to be hyperosmotic to the other, and the solution with lower osmolarity is said to be hypoosmotic. If two solutions have the same osmolarity, they are said to be isoosmotic.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    8.4: Osmosis and Diffusion

    Fish cells, like all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" on either side of them will even out. A fish that lives in salt water will have somewhat …

    8.4: Osmosis and Diffusion

    Last updated Aug 13, 2020

    8.3: Le Châtelier's Principle

    8.5: Acid-Base Definitions

    Allison Soult

    University of Kentucky

    Learning Outcomes

    Define osmosis and diffusion.

    Distinguish among hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions.

    Describe a semipermeable membrane.

    Predict behavior of blood cells in different solution types.

    Describe flow of solvent molecules across a membrane.

    Identify the polar and nonpolar regions of a cell membrane.

    Explain the components present in a phospholipid.

    Fish cells, like all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" on either side of them will even out. A fish that lives in salt water will have somewhat salty water inside itself. Put it in freshwater, and the freshwater will, through osmosis, enter the fish, causing its cells to swell, and the fish will die. What will happen to a freshwater fish in the ocean?

    Osmosis

    Imagine you have a cup that has

    100mL 100mL water, and you add 15g 15g

    of table sugar to the water. The sugar dissolves and the mixture that is now in the cup is made up of a solute (the sugar) that is dissolved in the solvent (the water). The mixture of a solute in a solvent is called a solution.

    Imagine now that you have a second cup with

    100mL 100mL

    of water, and you add

    45g 45g

    of table sugar to the water. Just like the first cup, the sugar is the solute, and the water is the solvent. But now you have two mixtures of different solute concentrations. In comparing two solutions of unequal solute concentration, the solution with the higher solute concentration is hypertonic, and the solution with the lower solute concentration is hypotonic. Solutions of equal solute concentration are isotonic. The first sugar solution is hypotonic to the second solution. The second sugar solution is hypertonic to the first.

    You now add the two solutions to a beaker that has been divided by a semipermeable membrane, with pores that are too small for the sugar molecules to pass through, but are big enough for the water molecules to pass through. The hypertonic solution is one one side of the membrane and the hypotonic solution on the other. The hypertonic solution has a lower water concentration than the hypotonic solution, so a concentration gradient of water now exists across the membrane. Water molecules will move from the side of higher water concentration to the side of lower concentration until both solutions are isotonic. At this point, equilibrium is reached.

    Red blood cells behave the same way (see figure below). When red blood cells are in a hypertonic (higher concentration) solution, water flows out of the cell faster than it comes in. This results in crenation (shriveling) of the blood cell. On the other extreme, a red blood cell that is hypotonic (lower concentration outside the cell) will result in more water flowing into the cell than out. This results in swelling of the cell and potential hemolysis (bursting) of the cell. In an isotonic solution, the flow of water in and out of the cell is happening at the same rate.

    Figure 8.4.1 8.4.1

    : Red blood cells in hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic solutions.

    Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower concentration solution (i.e., higher concentration of water) to an area of higher concentration solution (i.e., lower concentration of water). Water moves into and out of cells by osmosis.

    If a cell is in a hypertonic solution, the solution has a lower water concentration than the cell cytosol, and water moves out of the cell until both solutions are isotonic.

    Cells placed in a hypotonic solution will take in water across their membranes until both the external solution and the cytosol are isotonic.

    A red blood cell will swell and undergo hemolysis (burst) when placed in a hypotonic solution. When placed in a hypertonic solution, a red blood cell will lose water and undergo crenation (shrivel). Animal cells tend to do best in an isotonic environment, where the flow of water in and out of the cell is occurring at equal rates.

    Diffusion

    Passive transport is a way that small molecules or ions move across the cell membrane without input of energy by the cell. The three main kinds of passive transport are diffusion (or simple diffusion), osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. Simple diffusion and osmosis do not involve transport proteins. Facilitated diffusion requires the assistance of proteins.Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration of the molecules to an area with a lower concentration. For cell transport, diffusion is the movement of small molecules across the cell membrane. The difference in the concentrations of the molecules in the two areas is called the concentration gradient. The kinetic energy of the molecules results in random motion, causing diffusion. In simple diffusion, this process proceeds without the aid of a transport protein. It is the random motion of the molecules that causes them to move from an area of high concentration to an area with a lower concentration.

    Source : chem.libretexts.org

    the arms race meant that once the united states built hydrogen bombs, the soviet union built them too. world peace had been assured. no other country wanted to build them. a new world war was about to start.

    get the arms race meant that once the united states built hydrogen bombs, the soviet union built them too. world peace had been assured. no other country wanted to build them. a new world war was about to start. from EN Bilgi.

    Atomic fears and the arms race (article)

    Read about the impact of nuclear proliferation in the 1950s, including fears of atomic bombs and increasing militarization.

    Overview

    The US government's decision to develop a hydrogen bomb, first tested in 1952, committed the United States to an ever-escalating arms race with the Soviet Union. The arms race led many Americans to fear that nuclear war could happen at any time, and the US government urged citizens to prepare to survive an atomic bomb.

    In 1950, the US National Security Council released NSC-68, a secret policy paper that called for quadrupling defense spending in order to meet the perceived Soviet threat. NSC-68 would define US defense strategy throughout the Cold War.

    President Eisenhower attempted to cut defense spending by investing in a system of "massive retaliation," hoping that the prospect of "mutually-assured destruction" from a large nuclear arsenal would deter potential aggressors.

    The Doomsday Clock and the H-bomb

    Shortly after the US dropped the atomic bomb on Japan, the scientists who had developed the bomb formed the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, an organization dedicated to alerting the world to the dangers of nuclear weaponry. Early contributors included J. Robert Oppenheimer, the director of the Manhattan Project, and Albert Einstein, who dedicated the final years of his life to promoting nuclear disarmament. In 1947, they printed their first magazine, placing on its cover what would become an iconic symbol of the nuclear age: the Doomsday Clock. The clock purported to show how close humanity was to nuclear annihilation, or "midnight." When the clock first appeared, the scientists predicted that humankind was a mere seven minutes to midnight.

    ^1 1

    start superscript, 1, end superscript

    Image of the cover of the June 1947 "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists," showing an abstract rendering of a clock face, with the minute hand at 11:53pm.

    Cover of the first issue of Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, with its rendering of the 'Doomsday Clock' at seven minutes to midnight. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons

    But by 1953, the scientists had revised their estimate to just two minutes to midnight. Their reason for this panicked prognosis was the United States' decision to develop and test a hydrogen bomb, or H-bomb, a nuclear weapon one thousand times more powerful than the atomic bomb that had leveled Hiroshima at the end of World War II. Although scientists and some government officials argued against it, US officials ultimately reasoned that it would be imprudent for them not to develop any weapon that the Soviet Union might possess.

    ^2 2 squared

    The development of the H-bomb committed the United States to an arms race with the Soviet Union. Despite the specter of nuclear holocaust, both the United States and the Soviet Union vied to build ever more powerful nuclear weapons.

    NSC-68

    The development of the H-bomb was just one part of the US project to increase its military might in this period. In 1950, the newly-created National Security Council issued a report on the current state of world affairs and the steps the United States should take to confront the perceived crisis.

    Their report, "United States Objectives and Programs for National Security," or NSC-68, cast the tension between the United States and Soviet Union as an apocalyptic battle between good and evil. "The issues that face us are momentous, involving the fulfillment or destruction not only of this Republic but of civilization itself," the report began. It went on to assert that the ultimate goal of the Soviet Union was "the complete subversion or forcible destruction of the machinery of government and structure of society in the countries of the non-Soviet world and their replacement by an apparatus and structure subservient to and controlled from the Kremlin."

    [Read an excerpt from NSC-68]

    The report concluded by recommending that the United States vastly increase its investment in national security, quadrupling its annual defense spending to $50 billion per year. Although this proposal seemed both expensive and impractical, the US entry into the Korean War just two months later put NSC-68's plans in motion.

    ^3 3 cubed

    NSC-68 became the cornerstone of US national security policy during the Cold War, but it was a flawed document in many ways. For one thing, it assumed two "worst-case" scenarios: that the Soviet Union had both the capacity and the desire to take over the world—neither of which was necessarily true.

    ^4 4

    start superscript, 4, end superscript

    Atomic fears

    With both the United States and Soviet Union stockpiling nuclear weapons, fears of nuclear warfare pervaded American society and culture in the 1950s. Schools began issuing dog tags to students so that their families could identify their bodies in the event of an attack. The US government provided instructions for building and equipping bomb shelters in basements or backyards, and some cities constructed municipal shelters. Nuclear bomb drills became a routine part of disaster preparedness.

    ^5 5

    start superscript, 5, end superscript

    The civil defense film Duck and Cover, first screened in 1952, sought to help schoolchildren protect themselves from injury during a nuclear attack by instructing them to find shelter and cover themselves to prevent burns. Though "ducking and covering" hardly would have helped to prevent serious injury in a real atomic bombing, these rehearsals for disaster gave American citizens an illusion of control in the face of atomic warfare.

    Source : www.khanacademy.org

    Cold War at its Height Flashcards

    Start studying Cold War at its Height. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Cold War at its Height

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    Vietnam was united, while Korea remained divided.

    Click card to see definition 👆

    In which way did the Vietnam War and the Korean War end differently?

    The war in Korea ended with little bloodshed, in contrast with Vietnam.

    Vietnam was united, while Korea remained divided.

    Korea became Communist, while Vietnam became non-Communist.

    Vietnam remained divided, while Korea was united.

    Click again to see term 👆

    Cuba

    Click card to see definition 👆

    The closest the world came to war during the Cold War was when the Soviet Union placed missiles on the Caribbean island of __________.

    Click again to see term 👆

    1/12 Created by htam88

    Terms in this set (12)

    Vietnam was united, while Korea remained divided.

    In which way did the Vietnam War and the Korean War end differently?

    The war in Korea ended with little bloodshed, in contrast with Vietnam.

    Vietnam was united, while Korea remained divided.

    Korea became Communist, while Vietnam became non-Communist.

    Vietnam remained divided, while Korea was united.

    Cuba

    The closest the world came to war during the Cold War was when the Soviet Union placed missiles on the Caribbean island of __________.

    It dropped by approximately $30,000 million.

    The line graph shows US defense spending from 1946 to 1968. (sorry, no graph).

    What happened to US defense spending from 1946 to 1948?

    It dropped by approximately $40,000 million.

    It dropped by approximately $30,000 million.

    It stayed about the same.

    It went up by about $30,000 million.

    domino theory

    What was the name of the theory that said that if one country in a region fell to Communism, others would surely follow?

    domino theory arms race brinkmanship containment theory

    the Soviet Union built them too.

    The arms race meant that once the United States built hydrogen bombs,

    the Soviet Union built them too.

    world peace had been assured.

    no other country wanted to build them.

    a new world war was about to start.

    divided country.

    The map shows Korea after World War II.

    The map makes it clear that after World War II, Korea was a

    part of China. divided country. part of Japan. unified country.

    loss of millions of lives, greater US concern about the spread of Communism, tension between North Korea and the United States

    Which of the following were results of the Korean War? Select all that apply.

    loss of millions of lives

    easing of tensions in region

    greater US concern about the spread of Communism

    end of communism in Korea

    unification of Korean peninsula

    tension between North Korea and the United States

    Both Vietnam and Korea were divided into a Communist North and a non-Communist South.

    In what way did the political situation in Vietnam resemble that of Korea in the 1950s?

    Both Vietnam and Korea were allied with the United States but then shifted allegiance to the Soviet Union.

    Both Vietnam and Korea were unified, Communist countries who then voted to become democracies.

    Both Vietnam and Korea were divided and suffered when the South invaded the North.

    Both Vietnam and Korea were divided into a Communist North and a non-Communist South.

    unify the South and North under a Communist government.

    The Vietcong were rebels in South Vietnam who wanted to

    rid both North and South Vietnam of Communist influence.

    spread the Catholic religion throughout Vietnam.

    overthrow the Communists who controlled the country.

    unify the South and North under a Communist government.

    Communist North attacked the non-Communist South.

    The Korean War began in 1950 when the

    Soviet Union attacked South Korea.

    United Nations invaded North Korea.

    Communist North attacked the non-Communist South.

    people of Korea rose up against the Japanese.

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    Arms Race

    An arms race, such as the U.S.-Soviet Cold War nuclear arms race, occurs when countries increase their military forces to gain superiority over one another.

    Arms Race

    Author: History.com Editors Publish date: Dec 2, 2019

    An arms race occurs when two or more countries increase the size and quality of military resources to gain military and political superiority over one another. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union is perhaps the largest and most expensive arms race in history; however, others have occurred, often with dire consequences. Whether an arms race increases or decreases the risk of war remains debatable: some analysts agree with Sir Edward Grey, Britain's foreign secretary at the start of World War I, who stated "The moral is obvious; it is that great armaments lead inevitably to war."

    Dreadnought Arms Race

    With the Industrial Revolution came new weaponry, including vastly improved warships. In the late nineteenth century, France and Russia built powerful armies and challenged the spread of British colonialism. In response, Britain shored up its Royal Navy to control the seas.

    Britain managed to work out its arms race with France and Russia with two separate treaties. But Germany had also drastically increased its military budget and might and built a large navy to contest Britain’s naval dominance in hopes of becoming a world power.

    In turn, Britain further expanded the Royal Navy and built more advanced and powerful battlecruisers, including the 1906 HMS Dreadnought, a technically advanced type of warship that set the standard for naval architecture.

    Not to be outdone, Germany produced its own fleet of dreadnought class warships, and the standoff continued with both sides fearing a naval attack from the other and building bigger and better ships.

    Germany couldn’t keep up, however, and Britain won the so-called Anglo-German Arms Race. The conflict didn’t cause World War I, but it did help to increase distrust and tensions between Germany, Britain and other European powers.

    Arms Control Efforts Fail

    After World War I, many countries showed an interest in arms control. President Woodrow Wilson led the way by making it a key point in his famous 1918 Fourteen Points speech, wherein he laid out his vision for postwar peace.

    At the Washington Naval Conference (1921-1922), the United States, Britain and Japan signed a treaty to restrict arms, but in the mid-1930s Japan chose not to renew the agreement. Moreover, Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles and began to rearm.

    This started a new arms race in Europe between Germany, France and Britain — and in the Pacific between Japan and the United States — which continued into World War II.

    Nuclear Arms Race

    Though the United States and the Soviet Union were tentative allies during World War II, their alliance soured after Nazi Germany surrendered in May 1945.

    The United States cast a wary eye over the Soviet Union’s quest for world dominance as they expanded their power and influence over Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union resented the United States’ geopolitical interference and America’s own arms buildup.

    Further fueling the flame of distrust, the United States didn’t tell the Soviet Union they planned to drop an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, although they had told them they had created the bomb.

    To help discourage Soviet communist expansion, the United States built more atomic weaponry. But in 1949, the Soviets tested their own atomic bomb, and the Cold War nuclear arms race was on.

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    The United States responded in 1952 by testing the highly destructive hydrogen “superbomb,” and the Soviet Union followed suit in 1953. Four years later, both countries tested their first intercontinental ballistic missiles and the arms race rose to a terrifying new level.

    Cold War Arms Race Heads to Space

    The Soviet’s launch of the first Sputnik satellite on October 4, 1957, stunned and concerned the United States and the rest of the world, as it took the Cold War arms race soon became the Space Race.

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower tried to tone down the rhetoric over the success of the launch, while he streamed federal funds into the United States’ space program to prevent being left behind.

    After a series of mishaps and failures, the United States successfully launched its first satellite into space on January 31, 1958, and the Space Race continued as both countries researched new technology to create more powerful weapons.

    Missile Gap

    Throughout the 1950s, the United States became convinced that the Soviet Union had better missile capability that, if launched, could not be defended against. This theory, known as the Missile Gap, was eventually disproved by the CIA but not before causing grave concern to U.S. officials.

    Many politicians used the Missile Gap as a talking point in the 1960 presidential election. Yet, in fact, U.S. missile power was superior to that of the Soviet Union at the time. Over the next three decades, however, both countries grew their arsenals to well over 10,000 warheads.

    Cuban Missile Crisis

    The Cold War arms race came to a tipping point in 1962 after the John F. Kennedy administration’s failed attempt to overthrow Cuba’s premier Fidel Castro, and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev implemented a secret agreement to place Soviet warheads in Cuba to deter future coup attempts.

    Source : www.history.com

    await is only valid in async functions and the top level bodies of modules

    get await is only valid in async functions and the top level bodies of modules from EN Bilgi.

    NodeJS Await is Only Valid in Async Function

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    javascript

    I wrote this code in lib/helper.js var myfunction = async function(x,y) { .... return [variableA, variableB] } exports.myfunction = myfunction; and then I tried to use it in another file var

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    I wrote this code in lib/helper.js

    var myfunction = async function(x,y) {

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    }

    exports.myfunction = myfunction;

    and then I tried to use it in another file

    var helper = require('./helper.js');

    var start = function(a,b){

    ....

    const result = await helper.myfunction('test','test');

    }

    exports.start = start;

    I got an error

    "await is only valid in async function"

    What is the issue? javascript node.js Share

    edited Sep 4, 2020 at 19:35

    patridge 26k17 17 gold badges 90 90 silver badges 131 131 bronze badges

    asked Mar 22, 2018 at 15:29

    j.doe 3,7474 4 gold badges 18 18 silver badges 24 24 bronze badges 4

    Well, the issue is that await can only be used inside an async function. That is, await makes a function asynchronous, so it must be declared as such. –

    Pointy

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:30

    What is the current error? –

    acdcjunior

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:43

    still the same, SyntaxError: await is only valid in async function –

    j.doe

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:45

    You need to share more context about your code. –

    Ele

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:54

    2

    Possible duplicate of How do I return the response from an asynchronous call? –

    Liam

    Mar 22, 2018 at 16:02

    Show 1 more comment

    12 Answers

    343

    The error is not refering to myfunction but to start.

    async function start() {

    ....

    const result = await helper.myfunction('test', 'test');

    } // My function

    const myfunction = async function(x, y) {

    return [ x, y, ]; } // Start function

    const start = async function(a, b) {

    const result = await myfunction('test', 'test');

    console.log(result);

    } // Call start start(); Expand snippet

    I use the opportunity of this question to advise you about an known anti pattern using await which is : return await.

    WRONG

    async function myfunction() {

    console.log('Inside of myfunction');

    }

    // Here we wait for the myfunction to finish

    // and then returns a promise that'll be waited for aswell

    // It's useless to wait the myfunction to finish before to return

    // we can simply returns a promise that will be resolved later

    // useless async here

    async function start() {

    // useless await here

    return await myfunction();

    } // Call start (async() => {

    console.log('before start');

    await start();

    console.log('after start');

    })(); Expand snippet

    CORRECT

    async function myfunction() {

    console.log('Inside of myfunction');

    }

    // Here we wait for the myfunction to finish

    // and then returns a promise that'll be waited for aswell

    // It's useless to wait the myfunction to finish before to return

    // we can simply returns a promise that will be resolved later

    // Also point that we don't use async keyword on the function because

    // we can simply returns the promise returned by myfunction

    function start() {

    return myfunction();

    } // Call start (async() => {

    console.log('before start');

    await start();

    console.log('after start');

    })(); Expand snippet

    Also, know that there is a special case where return await is correct and important : (using try/catch)

    Are there performance concerns with `return await`?

    Share

    edited Jun 11, 2020 at 17:48

    answered Mar 22, 2018 at 15:29

    Orelsanpls 20.6k4 4 gold badges 36 36 silver badges 61 61 bronze badges

    But this is not working, I updated my code. I still get the same error –

    j.doe

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:35

    @j.doe I've added a snippet –

    Orelsanpls

    Mar 22, 2018 at 15:53

    2

    Thanks, I found my problem. I was trying to do it inside a callback is the start() function. The solution was : const start = async function(a, b) { task.get(options, async function (error, result1) { const result = await myfunction('test', 'test'); –

    j.doe

    Mar 22, 2018 at 16:00

    Considering that Node is a single threaded. Doesn't it decreases the request per minutes and also increases the delay in between fullfilling requests. –

    Rishabh Dhiman

    Sep 8, 2019 at 15:40

    1

    It's worth mentioning that in the "CORRECT" example, it isn't necessary to declare start as an async function (although some will chose to do so anyways, in order to be more explicit) –

    Gershom Maes

    Jan 7, 2020 at 20:02

    Show 1 more comment 27

    To use await, its executing context needs to be async in nature

    As it said, you need to define the nature of your executing context where you are willing to await a task before anything.

    Just put async before the fn declaration in which your async task will execute.

    var start = async function(a, b) {

    // Your async task will execute with await

    await foo()

    console.log('I will execute after foo get either resolved/rejected')

    Source : stackoverflow.com

    Fix

    The error "await is only valid in async functions and the top level bodies of modules" occurs when the `await` keyword is used inside of a function that was not marked as `async`. To solve the error, mark the directly enclosing function as `async`.

    Fix - Await is only valid in async function Error in NodeJS

    Borislav Hadzhiev Sat Mar 12 2022 2 min read

    Photo by Kevin O'Connor

    Fix - Await is only valid in async function Error in NodeJS #

    The error "await is only valid in async functions and the top level bodies of modules" occurs when the await keyword is used inside of a function that was not marked as async. To solve the error, mark the directly enclosing function as async.

    Here are 2 examples of how the error occurs.

    index.js

    // 👇️ Cause: Function not marked as async

    function getNum() {

    // ⛔️ Error: SyntaxError: await is only valid

    // in async functions and the top level bodies of modules

    const num = await Promise.resolve(100);

    return num; }

    // 👇️ Cause: Using top level await without setting

    // `type` to `module` in `package.json`

    const result = await Promise.resolve(42);

    The first cause of the error is - using the await keyword inside of a function that was not declared as async.

    To solve this, we have to mark the directly enclosing function as async.

    index.js

    // ✅ now marked as async

    async function getNum() {

    const num = await Promise.resolve(100);

    return num; }

    If you're getting the error for using top-level await, scroll down to the package.json section of the article.

    A very common cause of the error is forgetting to set an inner function as async, e.g. the ones we pass to methods like forEach(), map(), etc.

    Note that the directly enclosing function of the one that uses the await keyword has to be marked as async.

    index.js

    async function loopNums() {

    const nums = [3, 5, 7];

    nums.forEach(num => {

    // ⛔️ SyntaxError: await is only valid

    // in async functions and the top level bodies of modules

    await Promise.resolve(num);

    }); }

    We marked the loopNums function as async, but we're using the await keyword inside of the function we passed to the forEach() method.

    Instead, we should have marked the function we passed to forEach as async.

    index.ts

    function loopNums() {

    const nums = [3, 5, 7];

    nums.forEach(async num => {

    await Promise.resolve(num);

    }); }

    Now, the function we passed to the forEach method is async, so we are able to use the await keyword in it.

    The directly enclosing function has to be marked async for us to be able to use the await keyword.

    If you're trying to use the await keyword on the top level of your Node.js application, make sure to set the type attribute to module in your package.json file.

    If you don't have a package.json file, create one by using the npm init -y command (only if you don't have one already).

    Open the package.json file at the root directory of your project and set the type attribute to module.

    package.json { "type": "module",

    // ... your other settings

    }

    Now you can use top level await in your Node.js code.

    index.ts

    const result = await Promise.resolve(42);

    console.log(result); // 👉️ 42

    Use the search field on my Home Page to filter through my more than 1,000 articles.

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    a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi-party system and is looking for other companies with similar interests to join them. with blockchain, every organization sees the same data. what does this provide?

    get a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi-party system and is looking for other companies with similar interests to join them. with blockchain, every organization sees the same data. what does this provide? from EN Bilgi.

    a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi

    get a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi-party system and is looking for other companies with similar interests to join them. with blockchain, every organization sees the same data. what does this provide? from screen.

    a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi-party system and is looking for other companies with similar interests to join them. with blockchain, every organization sees the same data. what does this provide?

    Category : screen Website Posts

    Advik

    दोस्तों क्या किसी को इसका जवाब पता है?

    get a company wishes to begin the process of implementing a multi-party system and is looking for other companies with similar interests to join them. with blockchain, every organization sees the same data. what does this provide? from स्क्रीन.

    Blockchain

    Accenture blockchain is pioneering transparent and secure business processes across the globe. Learn about our blockchain insights, capabilities, and services.

    अधिक देखने के लिए क्लिक करें

    स्रोत : www.accenture.com

    Blockchain technology and distributed ledger technology (DLT) in business

    Blockchain technology is often used as a synonym of distributed ledger technology (DLT) although both are not the same. A blockchain uses several technologies, including distributed ledger technology, to enable blockchain applications.

    अधिक देखने के लिए क्लिक करें

    स्रोत : www.i-scoop.eu

    The value proposition of blockchain technologies and its impact on Digital Platforms

    Since the last few years there has been a massive spurt of Research on Blockchain Technologies and several attempts at incorporating them for a myriad…

    अधिक देखने के लिए क्लिक करें

    स्रोत : www.sciencedirect.com

    Do you want to see answer or more ?

    Yes No ppw 3 month ago 0 Trust Advik 6 month ago 4

    दोस्तों क्या किसी को इसका जवाब पता है?

    2 answer Admin

    Source : indiascreen.ir

    Blockchain

    Accenture blockchain is pioneering transparent and secure business processes across the globe. Learn about our blockchain insights, capabilities, and services.

    blockchainx

    Enable and empower multiparty systems to

    accelerate transformation

    What It Is

    Blockchain is a database system that maintains and records data in a way that allows multiple organizations and individuals to confidently share access to the same data in real-time, while mitigating concerns around security, privacy and control.

    Why It Matters

    This capability creates whole new ways of thinking about how to transform processes, drive resiliency across complex networks like supply chains, facilitate trust, verify the digital identity of people and objects, and build new revenue models.

    Where It's Going

    Through a combination of blockchain, biometrics and identity, tokenization, confidential compute and a variety of other technologies also in use today, we are connecting networks of collaborative ecosystems that increase transparency and nimbleness.

    CONTACT US

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    Content Spotlight

    Data sharing + cloud: How to spark new biz models

    Companies should take this opportunity to enhance ecosystem data sharing by embracing blockchain-based multiparty systems alongside cloud investment.

    READ MORE

    1. Develop Your Strategic Point of View

    Begin with understanding what blockchain is, why it matters, and the future of multiparty systems.

    VIEW ALL ARTICLES

    A multiparty system's path through chaos

    See the future together: building new and existing partnerships for success.

    Picturing the value of blockchain

    New research to help organizations understand the path to blockchain adoption with a value framework to shape the business case for this technology.

    Blockchain’s potential starts with security

    Learn the security principles to embed throughout the development lifecycle of your enterprise blockchain application.

    2. Create Your Collaborative Ecosystem

    As you plan your course of action, consider these mission-critical multiparty system principles to inform a successful roadmap.

    VIEW ALL ARTICLES

    Governing blockchain/DLT networks

    Effective governance must guide the growth of multiparty systems to meet the highest requirements of regulated industries.

    Maximize collaboration for secure data sharing

    A new family of Privacy Preserving Computation techniques are poised to disrupt enterprise data exchange and converge ecosystems.

    3. Expand With New Partners

    Glean insights from multiparty systems already in play today to inform how you will unite your stakeholders around a shared data construct.

    VIEW ALL ARTICLES

    How to build trust in a new digital world

    Accenture discovers data sharing powered by blockchain and multiparty systems to help build trust in a new digital world.

    Blockchain for social impact

    Explore some of our most inspiring collaborations with enterprises, governments and NGOs dedicated to positive social impact.

    Our key focal areas

    Accenture Blockchain and Multiparty Systems specializes in supply chain, digital identity and financial services. In each of these domains, we have built incredible foundational capabilities, confirmed proofs of value, and helped business ecosystems implement the first wave of multiparty systems.

    Supply Chain

    Multiparty systems transform supply chains into collaborative supply networks with greater agility and resiliency.

    VIEW ALL ARTICLES

    One connected supply chain

    At one. One Connected Supply Chain. One big move forward.

    Circular supply chain

    This capability shows pathways to new channels of engagement with consumers and greater transparency in trade and beyond.

    Report: Tracing the food supply chain

    Making a difference is a key differentiator. Explore the potential of blockchain for good through the lens of four commodities.

    Digital Identity

    Digital identity is essential to the growth and viability of our digital economy, and fundamental to every organization, across every sector.

    VIEW ALL ARTICLES

    Source : www.accenture.com

    Top 55 Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers in 2022

    This blog on Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers will prepare you to ace all the Blockchain developers Interviews.

    Blockchain is the latest buzz words in the market. Bitcoin is great, but the potential of the underlying technology is immense. Something that started as an evolution is soon going to cause a revolution. Investors are cashing in huge amount because they understand the fortune of this ingenious technology is pretty bright. Industry experts and tech enthusiasts are coming up with the blockchain-based products every next day. So wait not, and get industry-ready with these Blockchain Interview Questions.

    So, if you are planning to start your Blockchain career, now is the right time to get your Blockchain certification and dive in, when the technology is in its nascent state.

    In this Blockchain interview questions blog, I have collected the most frequently asked questions by interviewers. These questions are collected after consulting with top industry experts in the field of Blockchain & related technologies.

    For your convenience and better readability, I have divided the interview questions into the following sections:

    General Blockchain Interview Questions

    Multiple Choice Blockchain Interview Questions

    Advanced Blockchain Interview Questions

    You may go through this recording of Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers where our instructor has explained the topics in a detailed manner with examples that will help you to understand this concept better.

    Blockchain Interview Questions and Answers in 2022 | Edureka

    General Blockchain Interview Questions

    Q 1. What do you know about Blockchain? What is the difference between Bitcoin blockchain and Ethereum blockchain?

    The blockchain is a decentralized distributed database of immutable records. The technology was discovered with the invention of Bitcoins(the first cryptocurrency). It’s a trusted approach and there are a lot of companies in the present scenario which are using it. As everything is secure, and because it’s an open-source approach, it can easily be trusted in the long run.

    Bitcoin Blockchain and Ethereum Blockchain

    Topics Bitcoin EthereumConcept Digital Currency Smart ContractsFounder Satoshi Nakamoto Vitalik ButerinRelease Method Genesis Block Mined PresaleCryptocurrency Used Bitcoin(Satoshi) EtherAlgorithm SHA-256 EthashBlocks Time 10 Minutes 12-14 SecondsScalable Not yet Yes

    Q 2. What is the principle on which blockchain technology is based on?

    It enables the information to be distributed among the users without being copied.

    Q 3. What are the different types of Blockchains?

    Blockchains are of three types:

    Q 4. Why is Blockchain a trusted approach?

    Blockchain can be trusted due to so many reasons.

    Its compatibility with other business applications due to its open-source nature.

    Its security. As it was meant for online transactions, the developers have paid special attention to keeping up the pace when it comes to its security.

    It really doesn’t matter what type of business one owns, Blockchain can easily be considered.

    Q 5. Name the two types of records that are present in the blockchain database?

    These records are block records and transactional records. Both these records can easily be accessed, and the best thing is, it is possible to integrate them with each other without following the complex algorithms.

    Q 6. Blockchain is a distributed database. How does it differ from traditional databases?

    Properties Blockchain Traditional DatabaseOperations Only Insert Operations  Can perform C.R.U.D. operationsReplication Full Replication of block on every peer Master Slave

    Multi-Master

    Consensus Majority of peers agree on the outcome of transactions  Distributed Transactions

    (2 phase commit)

    Invariants Anybody can validate transactions across the network  Integrity Constraints

    Q 7. What are the properties of Blockchain?

    There are four key features of blockchain:

    Decentralized Systems

    Distributed ledger

    Safer & Secure Ecosystem

    Minting

    Q 8. What is encryption? What is its role in Blockchain?

    Data security always matters. Encryption is basically an approach that helps organizations to keep their data secure. The encrypted data is encoded or changed up to some extent before it is sent out of a network by the sender and only authorized parties can access that information.In Blockchain, this approach is useful because it simply adds more to the overall security and authenticity of blocks and helps to keep them secure.

    Q 9. What do you mean by blocks in blockchain technology?

    Blockchain consists of a list of records. Such records are stored in blocks. These blocks are in turn linked with other blocks and hence constitute a chain called Blockchain.

    Source : www.edureka.co

    when you are boating on a lake and the weather turns bad, what should you do first?

    get when you are boating on a lake and the weather turns bad, what should you do first? from EN Bilgi.

    Severe Weather: Prepare Your Boat and Passengers

    Severe Weather: Prepare Your Boat and Passengers

    To prepare the boat to handle severe weather:

    Slow down, but keep enough power to maintain headway and steering.

    Close all hatches, windows, and doors to reduce the chance of swamping.

    Stow any unnecessary gear.

    Turn on your navigation lights. If there is fog, sound your fog horn. If you have radar, use it when visibility is restricted.

    Keep bilges free of water. Be prepared to remove water by bailing.

    If there is lightning, disconnect all electrical equipment. Stay as clear of metal objects as possible.

    To prepare your passengers if caught in foul weather:

    Have everyone put on a Canadian-approved lifejacket or PFD. If a lifejacket or PFD is already on, make sure it is secured properly.

    Have your passengers sit on the floor close to the centreline. This is for their safety and to make the pleasure craft more stable.

    Boater’s Tip

    To determine the distance you are from an approaching thunderstorm:

    Count the number of seconds between the flash of lightning and the clap of thunder.

    Multiply the number of seconds by 340.

    The result is roughly the distance in metres you are from the storm.

    Glossary

    bail

    To remove water by scooping it out with a bucket

    Source : www.boat-ed.com

    Weather Conditions & Boating in Rough Water

    Learn more about planning boating trips and how to check and monitor weather conditions through NOAA, plus how to operate your vessel in rough water.

    Checking Local Weather and Water Conditions

    Before any boating trip, you should check the short-term and long-term local weather forecast as reported on the radio, TV or Internet. You should always factor these weather forecasts into your preparations as you make your trip plan. For example, you'll want to avoid certain types of weather whenever possible, such as heavy fog or strong winds. You'll also want to pay particular attention to hurricane warnings; you should never go boating if there is a hurricane warning in effect.

    Once on the water, tune a portable radio to a VHF-FM weather station that broadcasts the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to get accurate, detailed and up-to-date weather information. N-O-A-A Weather Radio is frequently updated and covers the coastal areas of continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Mariana Islands with continuous weather broadcasts. It's your best resource for weather information while on the water. You'll find the NOAA broadcasts on the following frequencies:

    WX1 WX2 WX3

    162.550 MHz 162.400 MHz 162.475 MHz

    These broadcasts include weather information like temperature, humidity, wave conditions, barometric pressure, as well as wind speed and direction--- all important factors for determining when and where to boat, and when to head for shore.

    Monitor Weather While on the Water

    Since the weather can change very quickly, particularly when you're out on the water, it is vital that you pay close attention to weather forecasts and anticipate weather changes whenever possible.

    Here are some tips for keeping on top of weather changes while out on the water:

    Always keep an eye to the sky. Fog, dark clouds and lightning are clear signs that bad weather is approaching.

    Monitor barometric readings. A rising barometer is a sign that good weather is coming while a falling barometer indicates that foul weather is likely.

    Pay close attention to shifts in the wind direction and temperature; these are signs that the weather is changing.

    Be mindful of the West as bad weather usually approaches from this direction. Storms from the East often pack quite a wallop.

    Continually monitor your radio and weather channels and ask for information about local weather patterns by radio, especially if you're in unfamiliar waters.

    Finally, take note of what other boaters are doing. If they're heading for shore, it can give you a heads up about coming weather changes.

    Boating in Rough Water

    If you're out on the water and a storm is heading your way, you should prepare yourself, your passengers and your boat by taking the following steps:

    Make sure that everyone on board is wearing a lifejacket and that it is secured properly.

    Reduce your speed and continue with caution, keeping an eye out for other boats and floating debris.

    Close all hatches and ports to avoid swamping.

    For stability and safety, get your passengers to stay low in the boat near the centerline.

    Secure any loose items to avoid losing them overboard.

    Pump out the bilges so that your boat sits higher in the water.

    Check marine charts to find the nearest shelter, noting any hazards in the area;

    And proceed cautiously to the nearest safe shoreline.

    If a storm has already hit, here are some additional tips to ensure the safety of everyone on board:

    If there is lightning, unplug all electrical equipment. Stay low in the boat and away from metal objects.

    Head the bow of the boat into waves at a 45-degree angle. This will keep the boat in the most stable position.

    If your engine stops, drop an anchor from the bow to combat drifting and swamping. Never drop anchor from the stern.

    Remember, whenever you are boating in stormy weather, your first step is to make sure that all persons on board are wearing United States Coast Guard-approved personal flotation devices.

    Checking Local Hazards: Obtain Weather Forecast Information

    It's important to learn about local hazards before going boating in any new or unfamiliar waters. You can do this by obtaining local marine charts and/or checking with local boaters and marinas.

    Local boaters and marinas typically have a wealth of knowledge about boating in their area and are usually more than happy to share it.

    You should also find out if there are local rules such as horsepower restrictions, hours of operation, or access to locking operations that could impact your trip.

    Now let's review some of the hazards that you'll want to be aware of when boating.

    Local Hazards to be Wary of:

    Whitewater Areas

    Whitewater areas can very easily drag a boat or person downstream. Rocks, debris, as well as a strong, rushing current, are some of the dangers of whitewater.

    Shoaling Areas

    Shoaling areas (marked and unmarked) become shallow gradually and are often difficult to spot without local charts.

    Hazardous Inlets

    Hazardous inlets can produce abnormal currents or changes in water levels.

    Abnormal Tides or Currents

    Abnormal tides or currents can affect your ability to properly navigate or steer your vessel.

    Source : www.boaterexam.com

    You are boating on a lake. The weather turns bad. What should all passengers do first?

    Answer (1 of 34): Everyone puts on lifejacket, as well as sit down as low as possible. Then head for nearest friendly shore., Get everyone ashore can and sit out the storm. If taking on water, run bilge pumps, bail with buckets, hats, coolers to keep boat as dry as possible. But if boat capsizes...

    You are boating on a lake. The weather turns bad. What should all passengers do first?

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    Sort TC Christian

    , former US Coast Guard Marine Surveyer at U.S. Coast Guard (1972-1996)

    Answered 2 years ago

    Everyone puts on lifejacket, as well as sit down as low as possible. Then head for nearest friendly shore., Get everyone ashore can and sit out the storm.

    If taking on water, run bilge pumps, bail with buckets, hats, coolers to keep boat as dry as possible. But if boat capsizes, find a way to connect all people together using rope, lifejacket straps, belts. STAY WITH THE BOAT TILL RESCUED!

    Good question.There is more info out there, have a plan. If a bigger boat is closer then land, go over and ask for help. I know of cases where they put young children, mother's on the bigger boat.

    Tell someone Related questions

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    If one had access to a boat on a lake in a wild fire, how big must the lake be for one to be safe on the boat in the middle of the lake? For simplicity, assume a circular lake and a big enough fire that, say, driving through it is too dangerous.

    You are caught in severe weather while boating. What should you do?

    Susanna Viljanen

    , works at Aalto University

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 9.4K answers and 133.6M answer views

    Put lifejackets on. Go under the deck.

    Drink warm drink, such as coffee or tea, if available

    Go to bunk in horizontal position, preferably as close to the centre of gravity of the yacht

    Stay calm.

    Meanwhile, I will command the vessel…

    Reef the sails

    Check out the closest safe harbour

    Head to the safe harbour

    If none around, then head to a fairway and to the protective cover of the archipelago

    Find a place which is decently safe from wind and weather

    Put engine on, lower the sails and head to the place chosen

    Anchor there

    Make something warm to eat and drink.

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    Dave G. Howell

    , former Officer in Charge, Tofino Life Boat Stn. (Retired) at Canadian Coast Guard (1966-2003)

    Answered 1 year ago · Author has 11.8K answers and 3.7M answer views

    Start by putting on your lifejacket. Then contact the local authorities of your situation and what your intentions are, the number of POB (people on board), position etc. give an ETA to a safe area or set up a check in time that you will report back . Then head the boat into a sheltered area (not necessarily back to where you would like to go). But into a safe area where you can wait out the weather. Upon reaching safety re-advise the authorities that you have reached a safe hbr. and there is no longer any danger.

    I don’t know if this works in the USA, but in Canada *16 on your cell phone will

    David Mathis

    , Licensed USCG Captain and Master at Self Employed Business Owner (1995-present)

    Answered 2 years ago · Author has 525 answers and 169.7K answer views

    The passengers and you should put on life jackets. How big is the lake? How bad is the storm? How large is the boat? These are important questions as your actions on one of the great lakes would be considerably different than if you were on a small lake a couple miles long because the threat isn’t the same. Can you get upwind to a shore to avoid the wind? Can you get to an island and anchor on the lee side? Having a few guests aboard your 50′ boat in a thunderstorm has much less danger from a storm than having six people aboard a small row boat when a tornado is heading in your direction. As a

    Related questions

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    What should you do first if your boat runs aground?

    Captain Boomies

    , Licensed Captain, professionally salty for 20+ years

    Answered 1 year ago · Author has 54 answers and 57K answer views

    I’m going to assume that this is a boat that I might be captaining with passengers, and for the heck of it, I’m going to assume that it’s a pretty big lake, one of those “Great” ones. I’m also going to assume that we’re talking about the weather turning from blue skies to an epic storm, and that I was magically teleported to the helm because why wasn’t I checking my weather reports in the first place!?

    The passengers should do whatever I or the crew tell them to do. In this case, I’d probably tell them to put on life jackets, alert the crew of any medical concerns, and await further instruction

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    why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    get why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available? from EN Bilgi.

    why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly ... years after the network is fully rolled out

    why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available? 1 Answer

    Source : questions.aleizunews.com

    Why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    In this blog post we will explain in a simple way why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    Why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    In this blog post we will explain in a simple way why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    The second part has an interesting and very important insight: If there is a need for new ways to connect a small number of connected devices — from high-tech devices such as video games and smart TVs to smartphones and cars — and this need is met by a need for a broad range of data transmissions, then it makes sense that the next two generations of wireless connectivity technologies are to be used.

    There really isn’t a way to address this problem in general. A range of approaches has emerged to meet this need. Let’s start by assuming the next technologies do indeed work.

    The Roadmap for Wireless and Wireless Smart

    The approach to making a broad range of wireless communications in the next generation as widely available at a fixed rate would be to try to match each of the devices to an equal number of inputs. As with the “broadband standard” of the day, this approach relies upon the assumption that the device could be wired and a few combinations of transmitters or receiveters could provide a wide spectrum. Each of these networks should have many input protocols. The key question then is how to match the technologies currently needed in the same category of networks to the different kinds (smart or not) possible in the next generation of devices?

    Why a First Phase?

    The first step in creating and implementing wireless communication must be as simple as building something basic. We should build a first layer network. The first layer network is a communication protocol to connect our smart phones and tablets and can be built into many different smart phones and tablets.

    It cannot be just one layer, as this could be a network that contains many different functions related to various specific devices that have different data volumes, for example the phone or tablet on which a text message or internet call is received. In this context, the internet is divided into some specific networks (broadcast, e.g., in the cell phone) and some specific devices (radio, TV remote). But even in this definition of network, it is not that we have to build anything special. It should be that we design the network by drawing on different components of our network (for example the first elements mentioned in this article).

    External links –why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_center

    https://fr.vikidia.org/wiki/Datacenter

    https://128mots.com/index.php/2021/10/06/edge-computing-is-often-referred-to-as-a-topology-what-does-this-term-describe/

    https://diogn.fr/index.php/2021/08/19/que-mettre-dans-un-cv/

    Source : diogn.fr

    Why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

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    Why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    Saturday, March 26, 2022 Add Comment

    Question: Why does it take so long for each generation of wireless communication technology to become broadly available?

    Generation of wireless communication technology takes so long to become broadly available devices that enable it are often not available until years after the network has been fully rolled out. Current wireless phones include 3G and 4G networks, Bluetooth device and wifi technologies. Wireless communication technology transmits information over the air using electromagnetic waves like IR, RF ,satellite etc.

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    it is required that your private key files are not accessible by others.

    get it is required that your private key files are not accessible by others. from EN Bilgi.

    ssh "permissions are too open" error

    I had a problem with my mac where I couldn't save any kind of file on the disk anymore. I had to reboot OSX lion and reset the permissions on files and acls. But now when I want to commit a reposi...

    ssh "permissions are too open" error

    Ask Question

    Asked 10 years, 3 months ago

    Modified 3 months ago

    Viewed 2.0m times 2696

    I had a problem with my mac where I couldn't save any kind of file on the disk anymore. I had to reboot OSX lion and reset the permissions on files and acls.

    But now when I want to commit a repository I get the following error from ssh:

    Permissions 0777 for '/Users/username/.ssh/id_rsa' are too open.

    It is recommended that your private key files are NOT accessible by others.

    This private key will be ignored.

    What permissions levels should i give to the id_rsa file?

    permissions ssh Share

    edited May 26, 2014 at 23:48

    Michael Robinson 28.6k12 12 gold badges 103 103 silver badges 128 128 bronze badges

    asked Feb 14, 2012 at 2:02

    Yannick Schall 29.1k6 6 gold badges 28 28 silver badges 42 42 bronze badges 62

    Thanks for asking the quesiton. A better experience would be for the one who wrote this error message to suggest a few valid configurations (such as 600 or 400 as suggested below). Programmers not writing sufficiently complete error messages that are helpful have been torturing all of us for years! –

    George Pligoropoulos

    Apr 11, 2018 at 14:37

    FWIW, this is related to StrictModes being enabled on the sshd server, from the man page: "StrictModes Specifies whether sshd(8) should check file modes and ownership of the user's files and home directory before accepting login." - you could disable this however not suggested. –

    masseyb

    Aug 29, 2019 at 8:34

    Instead of It is recommended my os shows It is required. Maybe my os is newer (2020) and that`s why. –

    Timo

    May 27, 2021 at 19:58

    Also applies to other setups, such as even Permissions 640 ... are too open and other OSes such as Unix as well as Linux –

    Cadoiz

    Nov 25, 2021 at 14:45

    Unfortunately, the question cannot be edited any more. Title cannot contain "ssh "permissions are too open" error" It tells me "Please provide a title that summarizes your question. For assistance, see: How do I ask a good question?" - which I want to suggest and share here and now. –

    i_want_more_edits

    Nov 29, 2021 at 10:58

    Add a comment

    34 Answers

    1 2 Next 4508

    Keys need to be only readable by you:

    chmod 400 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    If Keys need to be read-writable by you:

    chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    600 appears to be fine as well (in fact better in most cases, because you don't need to change file permissions later to edit it).

    The relevant portion from the manpage (man ssh)

    ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    Contains the private key for authentication. These files contain sensitive

    data and should be readable by the user but not

    accessible by others (read/write/execute). ssh will simply ignore a private

    key file if it is

    accessible by others. It is possible to specify a

    passphrase when generating the key which will be used to encrypt the sensitive

    part of this file using 3DES.

    ~/.ssh/identity.pub ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa.pub ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

    Contains the public key for authentication. These files are not sensitive and

    can (but need not) be readable by anyone.

    Share

    edited Nov 7, 2019 at 4:58

    Manohar Reddy Poreddy

    20.9k9 9 gold badges 137 137 silver badges 125 125 bronze badges

    answered Feb 14, 2012 at 2:05

    quickshiftin 60.7k9 9 gold badges 63 63 silver badges 82 82 bronze badges 352

    400 is too low as that makes it non-writable by your own user. 600 is actually recommended as it allows owner read-write not just read. –

    jfreak53

    Jul 9, 2013 at 23:55

    11

    I discovered today there are times when 400 is relevant. Suppose you have an authorized_keys file that has the no-pty et al features set. If the file is writeable, the user can actually overwrite the authorized_keys file and gain interactive shell access! Something to keep in mind, though surely not the general case for most folks. –

    quickshiftin

    Nov 16, 2013 at 0:35

    22

    AWS actually recommends permission 400 on their website. That's what I did on OS X and it worked. –

    George Mylonas

    Jan 6, 2016 at 15:26

    8

    This definitely works and is more secure. The only downside is you then have to change it to 600 to edit. For id_rsa, and id_rsa.pub I doubt that matters because you rarely ever will edit those files, but for authorized_keys, it could be annoying. Best to understand the tradeoffs and configure each system appropriately. –

    quickshiftin

    Jan 6, 2016 at 17:11

    6

    I suppose it also depends on how often you're editing them. Many people set it and forget it, thus 400 would be more secure from others and your own actions; modifying to 600 when necessary. If it's part of your workflow and your ssh-savy, then maybe it would be more of a hindrance to keep changing permissions. –

    vol7ron

    Jun 1, 2016 at 14:27

    Show 11 more comments

    119

    Using Cygwin in Windows 8.1, there is a command need to be run:

    chgrp Users ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    Then the solution posted here can be applied, 400 or 600 is OK.

    Source : stackoverflow.com

    SSH error: permissions are too open

    Creator: Anusheh Zohair Mustafeez

    SSH error: permissions are too open

    Anusheh Zohair Mustafeez

    When working with SSH’s private/public key pair, users often come across the following error:

    @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    @         WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!          @

    @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    Permissions for '/Users/username/.ssh/id_rsa' are too open.

    It is required that your private key files are NOT accessible by others.

    This private key will be ignored.

    Here, '~/.ssh/id_rsa' can be replaced with the path to the user’s private key.

    Why does this error show up?

    This error is meant to inform users that the permissions for their private key need to be changed and made more secure. As the name implies, a private key must be kept private and is only accessible to the user themselves.

    Solution

    Luckily for us, we can update the permissions with the help of some simple chmod commands.

    If we want our private key to be readable by the logged in user, we will use the following command:

    chmod 400 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    If we want our private key to be both readable and writable by the logged in user, we will use this command instead:

    chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

    For windows, when you download the key file, make sure you move to the directory with Sudo privileges, i.e., in the C user directory.

    RELATED TAGS key ssh error permissions key CREATOR

    Anusheh Zohair Mustafeez

    License: Creative Commons -Attribution -ShareAlike 4.0 (CC-BY-SA 4.0)

    Source : www.educative.io

    How to Fix "WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!" on Mac and Linux

    When connecting to a server, you'll usually need some kind of authentication to log in, whether it be a username/password or key file. Usernames and passwords a...

    How to Fix "WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE!" on Mac and Linux

    Scott Robinson

    When connecting to a server, you'll usually need some kind of authentication to log in, whether it be a username/password or key file. Usernames and passwords are pretty straight-forward, but things can get a bit more confusing when it comes to using private keys. Not only do you need to run SSH with extra commands, but it turns out that the key file itself needs to have certain properties.

    Have you run in to the warning message below, and don't know how to fix it?

    Warning: Permanently added '192.168.1.1' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.

    @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    @ WARNING: UNPROTECTED PRIVATE KEY FILE! @

    @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

    Permissions 0644 for '/path/to/my/key.pem' are too open.

    It is required that your private key files are NOT accessible by others.

    This private key will be ignored.

    bad permissions: ignore key: /path/to/my/key.pem

    Permission denied (publickey).

    It's a common error to see when trying to log in to a server via SSH and a key file, and luckily it has a relatively easy fix. But before we get to that, let's get some background on why this error shows up.

    Why am I seeing this Error?

    What happened is the key you're trying to use (key.pem in the example above) is too accessible to users on the system.

    This is a bad thing because then you're not the only one able to use the key, which defeats the purpose. Private keys should only be accessible to one user.

    For example, if an attacker somehow gains access to any of the accounts on your system, then they'd be able access the key, as opposed to having to get access to your account specifically. This gives them too many opportunities to get to the private key.

    How can I fix it?

    Like I said earlier, this is an easy fix. Just run:

    $ sudo chmod 600 /path/to/my/key.pem

    Keep in mind that if you keep all of your keys in the ~/.ssh directory (or any other directory, really), you may need to adjust the permissions for that directory as well. In that case, use this:

    $ sudo chmod 755 ~/.ssh

    And that's all there is to it. Now you should be able to use your key with no problems.

    # unix # ssh # security

    Last Updated: August 1st, 2021

    Was this article helpful?

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    Source : stackabuse.com

    under section 1557, 2020 final rule issued during the trump administration sex was initially defined____________

    get under section 1557, 2020 final rule issued during the trump administration sex was initially defined____________ from EN Bilgi.

    Update to Section 1557 Nondiscrimination Final Rule

    The purpose of this bulletin is to inform hospitals and health systems of a change of interpretation to section 1557, the nondiscrimination provision of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). On May 10, 2021, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department for Health and Human Services (HHS) announced that it will interpret section 1557 to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Update to Section 1557 Nondiscrimination Final Rule

    May 24, 2021

    To: Hospital Chief Executive Officers, Legal Counsel and Government Affairs StaffFrom: Cara Helmer, BSN, RN, JD, Policy Director, Legal Affairs[email protected] | (206) 577-1827Subject: Update to Section 1557 Nondiscrimination Final RulePurpose

    The purpose of this bulletin is to inform hospitals and health systems of a change of interpretation to section 1557, the nondiscrimination provision of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). On May 10, 2021, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) at the U.S. Department for Health and Human Services (HHS) announced that it will interpret section 1557 to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Applicability/Scope

    All hospitals and health systems, as recipients of federal funds, are subject to section 1557 and other federal anti-discrimination laws.

    Recommendation

    WSHA strongly recommends that hospitals maintain robust nondiscrimination practices to meet the needs of their patients and communities. Nondiscrimination practices are crucial tools to ensure patients receive the care they need, regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity or other background.

    Overview

    Consistent with the Supreme Court decision in Bostock v. Clayton County, as of May 10, 2021, OCR will interpret section 1557’s ban on sex discrimination to include discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and discrimination on the basis of gender identity.

    In 2020, the prior administration amended the federal rules implementing section 1557. This rulemaking changed the way that section 1557 was interpreted and implemented (see WSHA prior bulletin for details here). Those changes included, among other things, reduced language access requirements, a narrowed definition of sex as the basis for discrimination, and a reduced scope and applicability of section 1557.

    Although the recent OCR announcement clarifies that LGBTQ persons are protected from discrimination under section 1557, it does not address or undo the other changes made in the 2020 rule. Many of those changes are still being litigated and may be the subject of future OCR rulemaking. Similarly, while the original section 1557 rules provided guidance and examples of discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation, this recent announcement does not include that type of detail or any definitions for what constitutes discrimination. Further rulemaking, guidance, and clarification from OCR is likely.

    Background

    Section 1557 is the nondiscrimination provision of the ACA. It builds on longstanding nondiscrimination laws and prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin (including Limited English Proficiency), age, disability or sex. In 2016, the Obama administration issued a final rule implementing section 1557. Parts of that rule are still subject to ongoing litigation today. The Trump administration issued a revised final rule in 2020, significantly narrowing many of the protections provided by section 1557 under the 2016 rule. Unlike the 2016 rule, the 2020 rule considered sex discrimination to only be discrimination based on gender assigned at birth. The 2020 rule did not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity.

    On June 15, 2020, the Supreme Court issued an opinion in Bostock v. Clayton County holding that it is a violation of Title VII for an employer to fire someone for being gay or transgender because “it is impossible to discriminate against a person for being homosexual or transgender without discriminating against that individual based on sex.” This holding called the 2020 rule, and its lack of protection against discrimination for LGBTQ people, into question.

    OCR’s recent announcement is that it plans to investigate and enforce section 1557 consistent with the Supreme Court’s decision in Bostock. OCR will therefore interpret “discrimination on the basis of sex” to include discrimination based on sexual orientation and discrimination based on gender identity.

    In addition to OCR’s announcement regarding the interpretation of 1557, Washington State’s law against discrimination (WLAD) prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender identity and sexual orientation. Washington law also prohibits insurance companies from refusing to issue or renew, cancel or decline a contract because of an individual’s sexual orientation. Moreover, as of May 2021,Washington state law also prohibits insurers from discriminating against policyholders based on gender expression or identity. (See here for a statement from the Office of the Insurance Commissioner.)

    WSHA’s 2021 New Law Implementation Guide—COMING SOON!

    Please visit WSHA’s New Law Implementation Guide online. The Government Affairs team is hard at work preparing resources and information on the high-priority bills that passed in 2021 to help members implement the new laws, as well as links to resources such as this bulletin. For now, you will find resources from 2019 and 2020 laws.

    References

    WSHA Bulletin on the 2020 Trump Administration 1557 Rule Changes

    Notice from the Office for Civil rights at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

    Health Affairs Summary on HHS Announcement Regarding 1557 Interpretation

    Source : www.wsha.org

    The Trump Administration’s Final Rule on Section 1557 Non

    Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, age, and disability in health programs and activities receiving federal funds. Here are the significant ways HHS's final rule would narrow the scope of this regulation.

    The Trump Administration’s Final Rule on Section 1557 Non-Discrimination Regulations Under the ACA and Current Status

    MaryBeth Musumeci

    Follow @mmusumec on Twitter

    , Jennifer Kates

    Follow @jenkatesdc on Twitter

    , Lindsey Dawson

    Follow @LindseyH_Dawson on Twitter

    , Alina Salganicoff

    Follow @a_salganicoff on Twitter

    , Laurie Sobel

    Follow @laurie_sobel on Twitter

    , and Samantha Artiga

    Follow @SArtiga2 on Twitter

    Published: Sep 18, 2020

    Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email Print

    ISSUE BRIEF TABLES ENDNOTES

    Key Findings

    On June 19, 2020, the Trump Administration issued final regulations implementing Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act. Section 1557 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, sex, age, and disability in health programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance. Notably, it is the first federal civil rights law to prohibit discrimination in health care based on sex. The final rule, issued in the midst of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, significantly narrows the scope of a rule issued in 2016 by the Obama Administration by:

    Eliminating the general prohibition on discrimination based on gender identity and sex-stereotyping and specific health insurance coverage protections for transgender individuals;

    Adopting blanket abortion and religious freedom exemptions for health care providers;

    Eliminating the provision preventing health insurers from varying benefits in ways that discriminate against certain groups, such as people with HIV or LGBTQ people;

    Reducing protections that provide access to interpretation and translation services for individuals with limited English proficiency;

    Eliminating provisions affirming the right of private individuals to challenge alleged violations of Section 1557 in court and obtain money damages (leaving the right to sue for courts to decide) and requirements for non-discrimination notices and grievance procedures;

    Narrowing the regulations’ reach by only covering specific activities that receive federal funding, but not other operations, of health insurers and no longer applying the regulations to all HHS-administered programs; and

    Eliminating prohibitions against discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation in ten other federal health care regulations outside Section 1557.

    Just after the Administration published the final rule, the Supreme Court ruled that sex discrimination includes sexual orientation and gender identity in the employment context. Based on that decision, two federal courts issued nationwide preliminary injunctions blocking parts of the final rule: NY and DC courts blocked provisions excluding sex stereotyping from the definition of sex discrimination, and the DC court also blocked the religious freedom exemption. The NY court is now considering whether to block other provisions of the rule, and other lawsuits are pending.

    Introduction

    On June 19, 2020, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) finalized revised regulations implementing Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA),1 which prohibits discrimination in health care based on race, color, national origin, sex, age, and disability in health programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance.2 The final rule (which mirrors a proposed rule issued by HHS in June of last year3) is a significant departure from the Obama Administration regulations issued in 2016. Specifically, the final rule eliminates nondiscrimination protections based on gender identity, as well as specific health insurance coverage protections for transgender individuals, adopts blanket abortion and religious freedom exemptions for health care providers, reduces protections for those with limited English proficiency, and limits the activities and entities covered, among other provisions. It also eliminates prohibitions on discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation in ten other federal regulations outside Section 1557.

    The changes were scheduled to take effect on August 18, 2020, but a Supreme Court ruling in Bostock v Clayton County, Georgia,4 issued just days after the final regulation was released, found that discrimination based on sex encompasses sexual orientation and gender identity in the context of employment. Based on that decision, two federal courts have issued nationwide preliminary injunctions blocking the Administration from implementing parts of the final rule. A NY court blocked the implementation of provisions excluding sex stereotyping from the definition of sex discrimination.5 After the plaintiffs requested clarification about the scope of the preliminary injunction order, the court directed the plaintiffs to submit a list of provisions of the 2020 rule, beyond the definition of sex discrimination, that should be stayed in light of the Supreme Court’s Bostock decision for the court’s consideration.6 The DC court blocked the implementation of provisions excluding sex stereotyping from the definition of sex discrimination as well as provisions incorporating a blanket religious freedom exemption from claims of sex discrimination.7 Several other legal challenges to the rule are also pending.8

    This issue brief summarizes HHS’s final rule and provides a side-by-side comparison to the Obama Administration 2016 rule (Table 1). It also examines HHS’s changes to other regulations, separate from Section 1557 (Table 2). Finally, it assesses the current status of the final rule in light of the recent Supreme Court ruling and subsequent legal challenges (Table 3). Figure 1 presents a timeline of key dates in Section 1557 implementation, including the development and revision of regulations and subsequent legal challenges. A more expansive timeline is contained in Table 4.

    Source : www.kff.org

    Trump Administration Amends ACA Antidiscrimination Rule, Cutting Transgender and Other Civil Rights Protections, but Supreme Court Decision Calls Amendments into Question

    Late last week, the Trump administration issued a final rule amending an Obama-era rule implementing section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, or sex. Section 1557 applies to any health program or activity that receives federal financial assistance, any activity or program administered by a federal executive agency, and any entity established under Title I of the ACA, such as the health insurance marketplaces.

    AREA OF FOCUS

    Achieving Universal Coverage

    BLOG / JUNE 15, 2020

    Trump Administration Amends ACA Antidiscrimination Rule, Cutting Transgender and Other Civil Rights Protections, but Supreme Court Decision Calls Amendments into Question

    AUTHORS

    Timothy S. Jost

    Emeritus Professor, Washington and Lee University School of Law

    TOPLINES

    The Trump administration has issued a rule to roll back transgender protections and other civil rights protections under the Affordable Care Act

    The administration’s move is likely to face many legal challenges — the Supreme Court just issued a landmark rule that protects gay and transgender workers from workplace discrimination

    Late last week, the Trump administration issued a final rule amending an Obama-era rule implementing section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, or sex. Section 1557 applies to any health program or activity that receives federal financial assistance, any activity or program administered by a federal executive agency, and any entity established under Title I of the ACA, such as the health insurance marketplaces. The 2016 Obama-era rule that implemented section 1557 liberally interpreted it to enhance civil rights protections; the Trump rule dramatically cuts back these protections, limits the entities — like insurers — that are subject to the rules, and reduces enforcement alternatives for people who suffer discrimination. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) received nearly 200,000 comments on its proposed rule, but rejected all that questioned its proposals, which it adopted virtually unchanged. The Supreme Court decision of June 15, however, questions the validity of this new rule.

    Protections for Transgender Individuals Eliminated

    Most consequentially, the amendments eliminate the prior rule’s explicit protections for transgender individuals. The 2016 rules interpreted section 1557’s sex discrimination prohibition to require covered entities (e.g., hospitals, insurers) to treat individuals consistent with their gender identity. Under the rule, covered entities could not deny access to health services or facilities based on gender identity, exclude coverage for gender transition services, or otherwise restrict or limit services based on an enrollee’s transgender status. The new amendments completely drop these protections. They instead take the position that the sex discrimination prohibition recognizes only two sexes and only bars discrimination based on an individual being male or female and not on gender identity.

    Although the rule does not specifically address sexual orientation discrimination, it drops the earlier rule’s prohibition of discrimination based on sexual stereotyping. It also eliminates explicit protections against discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation from 10 HHS programs, including Medicaid managed care and the Medicare Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly, which helps people stay in their communities rather than nursing homes. The final rule also eliminates a prohibition against discriminating based on a person having had an abortion.

    The rule’s preamble argues that these changes are compelled by decisions of a Texas district court that first temporarily blocked and then threw out the gender-identity and termination-of-pregnancy provisions. The preamble refers to these decisions more than 40 times. However, on June 15, the Supreme Court decided that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity in employment. The 1557 rule is promulgated under a different title of the Civil Rights Act, but the sexual orientation and gender identity provisions of the 1557 rule will now be much harder to defend. The remaining provisions of the rule, however, are not affected by the Supreme Court decision.

    Language Access Requirements Truncated

    In a second major change, the Trump rule eliminates some language-access requirements. The 2016 rule required covered entities to post in their physical facilities and on their websites, and to include in significant communications, a notice stating that they did not discriminate and that language assistance (i.e., interpreters and translated documents) were available without charge. It also required short statements in the top 15 languages in the state (other than English) stating that language assistance is available free of charge. The new rule eliminates these requirements. It also provides that entities do not need a language access plan, that entities can consider cost and other factors in making language access services available, and that only audio (and not video) translation services are necessary. The preamble claims the elimination of the notice and tagline requirements will save $2.9 billion over five years.

    Fewer Covered Entities Must Comply with Rules

    Third, the rule cuts back on which entities are subject to the rule. The 2016 Obama rule defined covered entities very broadly. The Trump rule applies to operations that are principally in the business of providing health care — like hospitals or clinics — that receive federal financial assistance through HHS and programs administered under ACA Title I. But the rule significantly reduces its reach as to health insurers. Insurers that receive federal funds must only comply with section 1557 for the parts of their businesses that receive federal funds. For example, self-insured employer plans, short-term insurance plans, or individual health insurance sold outside the marketplaces are exempt.

    Source : www.commonwealthfund.org

    a hammer strikes a nail with a 10 n force for 0.01 seconds. calculate the impulse of the hammer.

    get a hammer strikes a nail with a 10 n force for 0.01 seconds. calculate the impulse of the hammer. from EN Bilgi.

    Impulse Quiz (week 2)

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    Physics

    9th -

    12th

    9th - 12th Impulse Quiz (week 2)

    Linda Figueroa 4 plays

    10 Qs

    Show Answers See Preview 1. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Compared with falling on a wooden floor, a glass may not break when it falls to a carpeted floor because

    answer choices

    there is less impulse involved in stopping the glass

    it takes a longer time for the glass to stop

    both of these answers

    neither of these answers

    2. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Choose the option below that has the most impulse force.

    answer choices evening glove snow mitten boxing glove nitrile gloves 3. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Impulse is caused by a change in momentum. What is necessary to CHANGE momentum?

    answer choices mass velocity acceleration force 4. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    The padding on a car dashboard has more effect on the impulse of the collision than the impact of the collision.

    answer choices True False 5. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    All of the following can change with changing momentum EXCEPT:

    answer choices displacement mass direction velocity 6. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Impulse is the relationship between which 2 factors?

    answer choices

    The time of impact and the velocity of the object

    The time of impact and the direction of the object

    The time of impact and the force needed to change the momentum

    7. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Applying a force for a longer time increases the change in _______.

    answer choices mass gravity momentum time 8. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    A change in momentum may result from:

    answer choices an acceleration a force an impulse all of the above none of the above 9. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    Guardrails along roadsides collapse (bend and crumple) when a car runs into them. This is done:

    answer choices

    to increase the momentum and decrease the crash force.

    decrease the crash force.

    to increase the contact time.

    so that the cars cannot rebound back into the middle of the road.

    10. Multiple-choice 2 minutes 5 pts Q.

    A hammer strikes a nail with a 10 N force for 0.01 seconds. Calculate the impulse of the hammer.

    answer choices 0.01 Ns 0.10 Ns 1.0 Ns 10 Ns

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    A hammer strikes a nail with a 10 N force for 0.01 seconds.

    Answer: 0.1Ns Explanation: Impulse is the product of Force and time Impulse = Force * Time Given Force = 10N Time = 0.01s Substitute into the formula Impulse = 10 * 0.01 Impulse = 10 * 1/100 Impulse = 10/100 Impulse = 0.1Ns hence the impulse of the hammer is 0.1Ns

    Question

    A hammer strikes a nail with a 10 N force for 0.01 seconds. Calculate the impulse of the hammer.

    Seen 6 months ago Physics byaecastaneda01

    Ask a Question

    1 Answer

    Filter 0 Answer: 0.1Ns Explanation:

    Impulse is the product of Force and time

    Impulse = Force * Time

    Given Force = 10N Time = 0.01s

    Substitute into the formula

    Impulse = 10 * 0.01

    Impulse = 10 * 1/100

    Impulse = 10/100 Impulse = 0.1Ns

    hence the impulse of the hammer is 0.1Ns

    abidemiokin

    answered Seen 6 months ago Add a comment

    End Answer

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    Physics 6C: Momentum & Impulse Practice Quiz

    Quiz your students on Physics 6C: Momentum & Impulse Practice using our fun classroom quiz game Quizalize and personalize your teaching.

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    Physics 6C: Momentum & Impulse Practice

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    Q.A hammer strikes a nail with a 10 N force for 0.01 seconds. Calculate the impulse of the hammer. (I=Ft)

    1 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the magnitude of velocity for a 2,000 kg car possessing 3,000 kg·m/s of momentum? (p=mv)

    2 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the mass of a baseball thrown at 25 m/s resulting in a momentum of 10 kg·m/s? (p=mv)

    3 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Which of the following has the LEAST amount of momentum? (p=mv)

    4 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A force of 500 N is exerted on a baseball by the bat for 0.001 s. What is the change in the momentum of the baseball? (I=Ft)

    5 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.BEFORE striking the pins, A bowling ball has 50 kgm/s of Momentum. AFTERwards, the bowling ball slows and has a momentum of only 20 kgm/s. What is the Impulse of the bowling ball system? (I = Pf-Pi)

    6 120 sec 112.39.c.6

    Q.What is the momentum of a 350 kg object that is traveling right at 15.0 m/s (p=mv)

    7 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the impulse of an object that has a force of 235 N applied to the right for 3 seconds? (I=Ft)

    8 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Find the momentum of a 90 kg man on a 15 kg bike traveling 14 m/s to the right. (p=mv)

    9 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.How much impulse is added when a force of 159 N is applied to the left for 2.5 seconds? (I=Ft)

    10 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 5400 kg cart moving right at 16.35 m/s? (p=mv)

    11 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 3.5 x 10^3 kg rocket traveling up at 15.6 m/s? (p=mv)

    12 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 2600 kg truck traveling east at 33 m/s? West=left, East = right (p=mv)

    13 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the Impulse of a system that has a force of 800 N east applied for 6.5 seconds? (I=Ft)

    14 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 0.05 kg golf ball traveling west at 23 m/s? (p=mv)

    15 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 9.2 x10^2 kg train traveling east at 3.2 m/s? (p=mv)

    16 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.How much Impulse was added when a force of 50,000 N west was applied for 10 seconds? (I=Ft)

    17 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A 2200kg truck is traveling right at 14 m/s. How much momentum does it have? (p=mv)

    18 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A 1300 kg Prius traveling at 10 m/s right. What is its momentum? (p=mv)

    19 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A 300 kg object travels right at 3 m/s. What is its total momentum? (p=mv)

    20 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the momentum of a 50 kg object that travels left at 10 m/s? (p=mv)

    21 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the total momentum of A 9000 kg boulder rolling right at 11 m/s? (p=mv)

    22 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.What is the total momentum of a stationary 2500 kg boulder. (p=mv)

    23 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Calculate the total momentum of A 600 kg cart is traveling right at 4.5 m/s. (p=mv)

    24 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Calculate the total momentum of a 200 kg cart heading left at 3.5 m/s. (p=mv)

    25 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A large object is split in two by a sledgehammer. One piece with a mass of 25 kg flies left at 14 m/s. What is this piece's momentum? (p=mv)

    26 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Two objects are stuck together and are not moving. An explosion rips the two apart. One piece with a mass of 250 kg goes right at 25 m/s. What is its momentum? (p=mv)

    27 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.Two men are pulling opposite directions on a rope. The rope breaks and the 125 kg man goes left at 3.5 m/s. What is his momentum? (p=mv)

    28 Text to speech 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A hammer strikes a nail with _______ force for 0.2 seconds. If the total Impulse added to the system is 20 Ns, then how much force did the hammer apply to the nail? (I=Ft)

    29 120 sec 112.39.c.6.c

    Q.A hammer strikes a nail with 15N of force for ____ seconds. If the total Impulse added to the system is 3 Ns, then how long did the hammer apply force to the nail? (I=Ft)

    30 120 sec

    Source : app.quizalize.com

    when european nations established colonies in africa in the late 1800s, they

    get when european nations established colonies in africa in the late 1800s, they from EN Bilgi.

    when european nations established colonies in africa in the late 1800s they?

    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s, they controlled colonies' government but gave colonies economic control. allowed

    when european nations established colonies in africa in the late 1800s they?

    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s, they controlled colonies’ government but gave colonies economic control. allowed colonies to run their government but held economic control.

    Why did European nations compete to establish colonies in Africa in the late 1800’s *?

    During this time, many European countries expanded their empires by aggressively establishing colonies in Africa so that they could exploit and export Africa’s resources. Raw materials like rubber, timber, diamonds, and gold were found in Africa. Europeans also wanted to protect trade routes.

    Where did European countries establish colonies in the 1800s?

    European imperialism did not begin in the 1800s. In their efforts to find a direct trade route to Asia during the age of Old Imperialism, European nations established colonies in the Americas, India, South Africa, and the East Indies, and gained territory along the coasts of Africa and China.

    Colonization of Africa – Summary on a Map

    Colonization of Africa – Summary on a Map Which is a correct statement about the dividing of Africa by European nations during the 1800s?

    The borders that were established for many African nations during the 1800s was based on territorial claims of colonial rulers. As they partitioned Africa, they paid little attention to traditional tribal boundaries and disregarded the cultural and ethnic diversity of the African people.

    Where did the European established colonies?

    The European countries of England, France, Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands (Holland) vied with one another for nearly four centuries to gain economic advantages in overseas territories. They founded colonies in Africa, India, Southeast and East Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

    When European nations establish colonies in Africa in the late 1800s they?

    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s, they controlled colonies’ government but gave colonies economic control. allowed colonies to run their government but held economic control.

    Why did European nations establish colonies in North and South America?

    Why did European nations establish colonies in North America? European Nations established colonies in North America because they wanted to expand their horizons. For the gold, glory, and to spread their religion. And they wanted to have more land than other countries.

    What was a major effect of European imperialism on Africa?

    Imperialism disrupted traditional African ways of life, political organization, and social norms. European imperialism turned subsistence farming into large-scale commodity exports and patriarchal social structures into European-dominated hierarchies and imposed Christianity and Western ideals.

    What were the effects of European rule in Africa?

    Colonialism had a huge impact on the lives of Africans. Economic policies were adopted by Europeans who destroyed the colonies, rather than help them. Africa was damaged economically, politically, and culturally. Africa’s traditional lifestyles and culture were destroyed.

    Which was a major effect positive of European rule in Africa?

    Three effects that European imperialism had on Africa included a more structured political system with an organized government, the development of industrial technology and the idea of nationalism, which led to wars and revolutions later on.

    Which statement about the European division of Africa in the 1800s is most accurate?

    Terms in this set (15)

    Which is an accurate statement about the partitioning of Africa by European imperialist nations during the 1800’s? Imperialism would benefit the economies of the colonial powers.

    How was Africa divided in the 1800s?

    In 1885 European leaders met at the infamous Berlin Conference to divide Africa and arbitrarily draw up borders that exist to this day. The map on the wall in the Reich Chancellery in Berlin was five meters (16.4 feet) tall. It showed Africa with rivers, lakes, a few place names and many white spots.

    Source : travelingsuccess.com

    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s,

    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s, they controlled colonies’ government but gave colonies economic control. allowed colonies to run their government but held economic control. exercis…

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    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s,

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    When European nations established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s, they controlled colonies’ government but gave colonies economic control. allowed colonies to run their government but held economic control. exercised complete economic and political control over the colonies. negotiated with colonies to determine economic and political control.

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    Grade 8

    Grade 8 - Term 3: The Scramble for Africa: late 19th century

    The colonisation of Africa was part of a global European process reaching all the continents of the world. European colonisation and domination changed the world dramatically. Historians argue that the rushed imperial conquest of the African continent by the European powers started with King Leopold II of Belgium when he involved European powers to gain recognition in Belgium. The Scramble for Africa took place during the New Imperialism between 1881 and 1914. The focus of this lesson will be on the causes and results of European colonisation of the African continent, with special focus on the Ashanti kingdom (colonised by the British as the Gold Coast, and today the independent African country of Ghana).

    European colonisation of Africa in the late 19th century

    Africa before European colonisation

    Due to worldwide insufficiency of world knowledge, the size and abilities of Africa as a continent was majorly undermined and oversimplified. Before colonisation, Africa was characterised by widespread flexibility in terms of movement, governance, and daily lifestyles. The continent consisted not of closed reproducing entities, equipped with unique unchanging cultures, but of more fluid units that would readily incorporate outsiders into the community with the condition that they accepted its customs, and where the sense of obligation and solidarity went beyond that of the nuclear family. Pre- colonial societies were highly varied, where they were either stateless, run by the state or run by kingdoms. The notion of communalism was accepted and practiced widely; land was held commonly and could not be bought or sold, although other things, such as cattle, were owned individually. In those societies that were not stateless, the chiefs ran the daily affairs of the tribe together with one or more councils. The colonisation of Africa through Europe brought about many forms of government that are still visible today. Before colonisation, however, there were many forms of government in Africa, ranging from powerful empires to decentralised groups of pastoralists and hunters.

    Africa before European colonialism Image source

    The use of iron tools marks a significant turning point in African civilization. Iron tools enhanced weaponry, allowed groups to manage and clear dense and thick forests, plough fields for farming, and making everyday life more convenient. Because the iron tools allowed Africans to flourish in their natural environment, they could live in larger communities which led to the formation of kingdoms and states. With this creation came the formation of modern civilizations, common languages, belief and value systems, art, religion, lifestyle and culture. Another unique characteristic of pre- European Africa was the favouring of oral tradition within these societies. Stories were told and handed down generations in verbal form. This poses a threat to the survival of these stories because certain aspects could be forgotten or told in a different way. National borders were also not much of a concern before colonization. European countries fought over African countries mainly for their natural resources. Lines were drawn through African communities which had existed for many years, and these lines can presently be seen as national borders. “A brief history of European Colonisation in Africa”

    Berlin Conference 1884

    The Conference of Berlin and British ‘New’ Imperialism, also known as the “Congo conference” began. In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German Chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics. One way to demonstrate national pre-eminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa. Another reason for European interest in Africa is the industrialization when major social problems grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement from rural areas, etc. These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries. Europe saw the colonization of Africa as an opportunity to acquire a surplus population, thus settler colonies were created. With this invasion, many European countries saw Africa as being available to their disposal. However, several disputes took place regarding which European country would colonise a specific African country. Thus, in 1884, Portugal proposed a conference in which 14 European countrieswould meet in Berlin regarding the division of Africa, without the presence of Africa.

    The first meeting at the Berlin Conference, 1884 Image source

    Source : www.sahistory.org.za